Hien Nguyen -Week 7 Assignment Due Sunday March 20

Hien Nguyen -Week 7 Assignment Due Sunday March 20 - Hien...

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Hien Nguyen FCS 70 Assignment of chapter & due 20 th March 7.1 What personality changes take place during Erikson’s stages of basic trust versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt? (pp. 246–247) According to Erikson, warm, responsive caregiving leads infants to resolve the psychological conflict of basic trust versus mistrust on the positive side. During toddlerhood, the conflict of autonomy versus shame and doubt is resolved favorably when parents provide appropriate guidance and reasonable choices. If children emerge from the first few years without sufficient trust and autonomy, the seeds are sown for adjustment problems. 7.2 Describe the development of basic emotions over the first year, noting the adaptive function of each. (pp. 247–250) - During the first half-year, basic emotions - happiness, interest, fear, anger, sadness and disgust - become clear well-organized signals. The social smile appears between 6 and 10 weeks, laughter around 3 to 4 months. Happiness strengthens the parent - child bond and reflects as well as supports physical and cognitive mastery. - Anger and fear, most frequently expressed as stranger anxiety, also rise in the second half of the first year as infants’ cognitive and motor capacities improve. Newly mobile babies use the familiar caregiver as a secure base from which to explore. 7.3 Summarize changes during the first two years in understanding others’ emotions, self- conscious emotions, and emotional self-regulation. (pp. 250–253) - The ability to understand other's feelings expands over the first year. From 5 months on, babies perceive facial expressions as organized patterns. Between 8 and 10 months, infants engage in social referencing, actively seeking emotional information from caregivers in uncertain situations. By the middle of the second year, infants become aware that others' emotional reactions may differ from their own. - During toddlerhood, self-awareness and adult instruction provide the foundation for self- conscious emotions: shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride. Caregivers help infants with emotional self-regulation by relieving distress, engaging in stimulating play, and discouraging 1
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Hien Nguyen FCS 70 negative emotion. During the second year, growth in representation and language leads to more
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