Hien Nguyen -Week 6 Assignment Due Sunday March 13

Hien Nguyen -Week 6 Assignment Due Sunday March 13 - Hien...

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Hien Nguyen FCS 70 March 13, 2016 Week Six: Assignment 6.1 According to Piaget, how do schemes change over the course of development? - In Piaget's theory, by acting directly on the environment, children move through four stages in which psychological structures, or schemes, achieve a better fit with external reality. - Schemes change in two ways: through adaptation, which is made up of two complementary activities-assimilation and accommodation; and through organization, the internal rearrangement of schemes into a strongly interconnected cognitive system. 6.2 Describe major cognitive attainments of the sensorimotor stage. (pp. 203–205) - In the sensorimotor stage, the circular reaction provides a means of adapting first schemes, and the newborn baby's reflexes transform into the older infant's more flexible action patterns. Around 8 months, develop intentional or goal-directed behavior and begin to master object permanence. -12-18 month olds become better problem solvers and no longer make the A-not-B search errors. Between 18 -24 months, mental representation is evident in sudden solutions to problems, mastery of object permanence tasks involving invisible displacement, deferred imitation, and make-believe play. 6.3 What does follow-up research say about infant cognitive development and the accuracy of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage? (pp. 205–214) - Many studies suggest that infants display various understandings earlier than Piaget believed. Some awareness of object permanence, as revealed by the violation-of-expectation method and object-tracking research may be evident in the first few months, although searching for hidden objects is a true cognitive advance, as Piaget suggested. - Furthermore, young infants also display deferred imitation, categorization, and analogical problem solving, and toddlers imitate rationally, by inferring others intentions - attainments that require mental representation. - A major advance in symbolic understanding, occurring around the first birthday, is displaced inference: the realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically 1
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Hien Nguyen FCS 70 present. The capacity to use language to modify mental representations improves from the end of the second into the third year. By the middle of the second year, toddlers treat realistic-looking pictures symbolically. At about 2.5 years, children grasp the symbolic meaning of video. - Today, most researchers believe that newborns have more built-in cognitive equipment for making for making sense of experiences than Piaget assumed, although they disagree on how much initial understanding infants have. According to the core knowledge perspective, infants are born with core domains of thought that support rapid cognitive development. - Nevertheless, broad agreement exists on two issues. First, many cognitive changes of infancy are gradual and continuous rather than stagelike. Second, various aspects of cognition change unevenly, rather than in an integrated fashion.
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