NutritionSG - Chapter 2&3 Objectives Impaired fertility...

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Chapter 2&3 Objectives: Impaired fertility: weight loss > 10-15% of usual weight inadequate or excessive body fat negative energy balance extreme exercising high alcohol intake inadequate antioxidant status endocrine disorders celiac disease- sensitive to gliadin (protein found in gluten in wheat, rye, oats and barley) this causes fat malabsorption. Need to follow a Gluten Free Diet. diabetes Impaired fertility in women recent oral contraceptive use- increase HDL, triglycerides and LDL, increased risk of blood clots and blood copper levels, dec levels of B12 and B6 eating disorders- menstrual irregularities high caffeine intake? alcohol vegetarian diet metabolic syndrome age > 35- sperm numbers and viability decrease after age 35 so more likely to have disorders related to chromosomal defects PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)- menstrual dysfunction, insulin resistance, high blood insulin levels, obesity < try to increase insulin sensitivity thru weight loss and physical activity poor iron stores Impaired fertility in men inadequate zinc alcohol intake halogen (pesticides) and glycol (antifreeze) heavy metal exposure- lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese high intake of soy foods steroid abuse obesity- reduces sperm count and reduces SHBG levels Early pregnancy nutrition exposures insufficient folate- increases the risk of embryonic development of neural tube defects excessive vitamin A- increases risk that the fetus will develop facial and heart abnormalities high maternal blood levels of lead- increase risk of mental retardation iodine deficiency- inc risk that child will experience impaired mental and physical development iron deficiency- inc the risk of early delivery and development of iron deficiency in the child Body fat, weight, & fertility- excessive and inadequate body fat is related to declines in fertility in men&women 0
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excessive body fat- obese women - have higher levels of estrogen, androgens, blood glucose, insulin, and leptin , reduced SHBG levelsand they have menstrual irregularity inadequate body fat- Diabetes and fertility- inc risk of maternal/ fetal complications high blood glucose in first 2 months of pregnancy diet for diabetes-50% carbs/ 15-20% protein/ <30% fat suggestions: inc complex carbs, monounsaturated fat, antioxidant veggies and fiber, whole grains should be half of all grain intake, dec simple sugars Nutrient status when planning for conception- chronic undernutrition- small effect on fertility but results in small frail infants with a high death rate acute undernutrition (from a famine )- dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does Chapter 4&5 Pregnancy weight gain recommendations Underweight- 28-40 lb Normal weight- 25-35 lbs Overweight- 15-25 lbs Obese- 11-20 lbs TWINS- 25-54 lbs Weight gain patterns 1st trimester- 4-5lbs 2nd and 3rd trimesters- 1lb/ week
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