Exam 2 Study Guide - Nutrition 201 Exam 2 Study Guide...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nutrition 201 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 6: Nutrition During Lactation Key Nutrition Concepts: Human milk is the best food for newborn infants for the first year of life or longer Maternal diet does not significantly alter the protein, carbohydrate, fat, and major mineral composition of breast milk, but it does alter the fatty acid profile and the amounts of some vitamins and trace minerals When maternal diet is inadequate, the quality of milk is preserved over the quantity for the majority of nutrients Health care policies and procedures and the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers affect community breastfeeding rates. Introduction The benefits of breastfeeding to mothers and infants are well established however since the 1970’s there has been little increase in the duration of lactation among all women. The health care system, the workplace, and the community can either hinder or facilitate the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Human milk is the preferred food for the premature and sick newborns. Breastfeeding Goals for the United States In early 1990’s all US infants were breastfed, as safe human milk substitutes (HMSs) became available breast-feeding rates declined. o Early 1900s: almost all infants were breast fed o 1950-1960: below 30% o 1970’s: rates began to increase o 1980’s: above 60% Longer duration of breastfeeding is associated with higher education and socio-economic status in the US Healthy People 2010 focuses on two major themes for the new decade: 1. Increasing the quality and years of healthy life 2. Eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health status
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Breastfeeding goals for US HP 2020 Increase proportion of infants who were breastfed Target % Actual % Ever 81.9% 74% 6 months 60.6% 43.5% 1 year 34.1% 22.7% *Data is from 2006 Increase proportion of infants who were exclusively breastfed Target % Actual % Ever 46.2% 33.6% 6 months 25.5% 14.1% 1 year 25% 22% Rates of breastfeeding are lower among African Americans (58% postpartum; 28% at 6 months; 13% at 1 year) Increase the proportion of employers that have worksite lactation support programs o Target: 38%; Actual: 25% in 2009 Reduce the proportion of breastfed newborns who receive formula supplementation within the first 2 days of life o Target: 14.2%; Actual 24.2% in 2008 Lactation Physiology Functional units of the Mammary Gland o The functional units of the mammary gland are the alveoli (a rounded or oblong shaped cavity present in the breast) o Each alveolus is composed of a cluster of secretory cells (cells in the milk gland that are responsible for secreting milk components into the ducts o These ducts branch into larger collecting ducts that lead to the nipple o The secretory cells are surrounded by myoepithelial cells which contract under the influence of oxytocin (a hormone produced during letdown that causes milk to be ejected into the ducts) Lactogenesis Breast milk production is described in the three stages of lactogenesis Stage 1: o
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern