Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - NHM 201-001 Exam 1 focus Areas...

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NHM 201-001 Exam 1 focus Areas SPRING 2010 What is food security/insecurity? Food Security: access at all times to a sufficient supply of safe, nutritious foods Food insecurity: limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods, or the inability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways Difference between primary & secondary malnutrition? Primary Malnutrition: malnutrition that results directly from inadequate or excessive dietary intake of energy or nutrients Secondary Malnutrition: malnutrition that results from a condition (e.g., disease, surgical procedure, medication use) rather than primarily from dietary intake) Be able to identify nutrient dense versus empty calorie foods Nutrient dense foods: foods that contain relatively high amounts of nutrients compared to their caloric value Empty calorie foods: foods that provide an excess of calories relative to their nutrient content Enrichment/Fortification – the difference? Enrichment: the replacement of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron that are lost when grains are refined Fortification: Components of a nutrition assessment? Historical background Physical examination Antrhopometric examination Biochemical analysis Factors associated with evaluating a research article (what should you look for – consider research terminology) The Dietary Reference Intakes – know the definitions EAR (Estimated Average Requirements) : the nutrient intake values that are estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individiuals in a group.The EARs are used to assess the adequacy of intake of population groups RDA (Recommended Dietary Alloqances) : levels of essential nutrient intake judged to ne adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons while decreasing the risk of certain chronic diseases AI (Adequate Intakes): the “tentative” RDAs. AIs are based on less conclusive scientific information than are the RDAs UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Levels): includes a table indicating levels of daily nutrient intake from foods, fortified products, and supplements that should not be exceeded. They can be used to assess the safety of high intakes of nutrients, particularly from supplements
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Definition of infertility? Subfertility? Infertility: commonly used to mean a biological inability to bear children Subfertility: reduced level of fertility characterized by unusually long time to conception (over 12 months) or repeated, early pregnancy losses Known risks for infertility in women, men? Men: Reduced SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) levels Females: Highly irregular, anovulatory or no menstrual cycles Reduced SHBG levels Increased estrogen, blood glucose, insulin levels Effect of chronic malnutrition on fertility? Acute malnutrition?
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