Exam 1 Study Guide - Nutrition 201 Exam 1 Study Guide...

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Nutrition 201 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Nutrition Basics Key Nutrition Concepts: Nutrition is the study of foods, their nutrients and other chemical constituents, and the effects of food constituents on health. Nutrition is an interdisciplinary science Nutrition recommendations for the public change as new knowledge about nutrition and health relationships is gained At the core of the science of nutrition are principles that represent basic truths and serve as the foundation of out understanding about nutrition Healthy individuals require the same nutrients across the life cycle but in different amounts. Nutritional needs can be met by a wide variety of cultural and religious food practices Nutritional status during one stage of the life cycle influences health status during subsequent life-cycle stages Principles of the Science of Nutrition 1. Food is a basic need of humans 2. Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth and health 3. Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells 4. Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake. 5. Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in food intake 6. Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states, genetic factors, or combinations of these causes 7. Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others. 8. Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases 9. Adequacy, variety, and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet. 10. There are no “good” or “bad” foods. Humans need enough food to live and the right assortment of food for optimal health. Food security : consists of people who have enough food to meet their needs at all times Food Insecurity : consist of people who have limited availability of safe, nutritious foods, or the ability to acquire them in a socially acceptable manner. People eat foods for many reasons, the most obvious is the requirement for energy, which comes from calories: a unit of measure of the amount of energy supplied by food Because calories are not a substance actually present in food, they are not considered to be nutrients. Nutrients the body cannot manufacture or produce in sufficient amounts are essential nutrients
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There are six categories of essential nutrients: 1. Carbohydrates a. Chemical substances in food that consists of a single sugar molecule or multiples of sugar molecules in carious forms. Sugar and fruit, starchy vegetables, and whole grain products are good dietary sources 2. Certain amino acids (proteins) a. Chemical substances in food that are made up of amino acids. Animal products and dried beans are examples of protein sources 3. Fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acid) a. Components of food that are soluble in fat but not in water. Most fats are composed of glycerol attached to three fatty acids. Oil, butter, sausage, and avocado are examples of rich sources of dietary fats 4. Vitamins a.
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