33-5 - mass states is “ normal ” or “ inverted ”...

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Neutrino Oscillations are not explained by the Standard Model Nobel Prize 2015 - neutrino oscillations Neutrino oscillations = quantum wave effects visible on a macroscopic scale Neutrinos have 2 sets of properties: flavor (electron, muon or tau) and mass (m1, m2 or m3) Each flavor state is a mixture of mass states, and vice-versa Mass states have different wavelengths (rest energy, momentum ~ λ ) So the different mass states making up a muon neutrino interfere ! We may observe a few electron neutrinos, after some time/distance Plan: Generate beam of muon neutrinos, count how many e neutrinos appear after travelling 300 km (t ~ 1 microsecond, by our clock) Super-K discovered this spacing: first proof that nu s have mass. We still don t know if order of
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Unformatted text preview: mass states is “ normal ” or “ inverted ” . each mass is a mixture of flavors 56 Next: Is there even further substructure? • Do quarks and leptons have smaller things inside them? • Much current debate on this topic! • Could all the particles be different “ states ” of a more basic entity? "String theory" suggests so. – Universe is actually 11-dimensional (!?) • All but 3 space dimensions are folded up inside “ strings ” … – Particles correspond to different vibrational modes – The Fabric of the Cosmos (now on PBS) by Brian Greene, describes this view • One difficulty: totally inaccessible for experimental tests! – “ Planck Scale ” , 10-35 meters, requires solar-system sized accelerator! • we need new ideas. .....
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