3,4.MODELING AND GLOBAL WARMING - ES8007 Climate and...

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www.earthobservator y.sg ES8007 Climate and Climate Change ES1007 Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate © NEA-MSS Modeling- Part I Asst. Prof. WANG Xianfeng Asian School of the Environment Nanyang Technological University 2 February, 2016
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K Advancement in Climate Science THEORY OBSERVATIONS MODELLING Models are mathematical implementations of theoretical ideas. Models need to be initialized with the present-day observation data in order to make estimates for the future. Past observation data are used to evaluate model performances in the past to identify model deficiencies and help in model development. Observations and models together are used to test theories and advance understanding. Making observations itself require much theoretical understanding and technological advancement, including the use of new instruments and data- retrieval models .
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K Data Sources: Surface Synop = surface stations METAR = aerodromes Ship = commercial routes
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K Data Sources: Upper Ocean Drifting buoys (e.g. ARGOS) Moored buoys (e.g. TAO)
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K Data Sources: Upper Air Weather balloons mainly
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K Data Sources: Upper Air Commercial aircraft
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K Data Sources: Satellite Remote- Sensing Geostationary Satellites GPS Radio Occultation Polar-orbiting Satellites http://earthquake.usgs.go v/research/earlywarning/i mages/stationdensity.JPG Ground-based GPS (Europe, Japan, USA) http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/CORS/
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the Hierarchy of Numerical Models Energy Balance Model assumes net global radiative balance where the equator-pole temperature gradient determines the meridional heat transport and hence motion. 2D – lat./long, 1D – lat., 0D – global average. Radiative-Convective Model- (for atmosphere) One vertical column represents the global average atmosphere Describes absorption, emission and scattering of radiation Represents convective and cloud processes Suitable for studying GHG/aerosol/cloud-radiative interactions http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/x/world-map-7683028.jpg L S Surface N. Pole S. Pole Equator greenhouse gas https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescien ce/atmosphericwarming/multilayermodel.html
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K Hierarchy of Numerical Models General Circulation Model (GCM) 3D atmosphere only with
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