6.TECTONICS AND CLIMATE - ES8007 Climate and Climate Change...

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www.earthobservator y.sg ES8007 Climate and Climate Change ES1007 Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate © NEA-MSS Tectonics and Climate -Part I Asst. Prof. WANG Xianfeng Asian School of the Environment Nanyang Technological University 15 March, 2016
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K KEY QUESTIONS What is plate tectonics? How have the continents moved through time as a result of plate tectonic activity?
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K GEOLOGICAL TIME CHART (Kump, Kasting and Crane, 2010, The Earth  System) Out of ~10% of the Earth’s history, our planet has been glaciated. The most extreme glaciations (“Snowball Earth”) occurred in the Precambrian Eon. Two major glaciations occurred in Phanerozoic Eon: Permo-Carboniferous glaciation and Pleistocene (Late Quaternary) glaciation.
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K THE ROCK CYCLE (Stanley, 2009, Earth System  History) Igneous rock Igneous rocks: form by the cooling and solidification of magma. Sedimentary rocks: form by lithification of fine materials decomposed from Earth’s surface rocks. Metamorphic rocks: form from any type of rocks that are exposed to high temperatures, high pressures, and/or chemically active fluids.
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K IGNEOUS ROCK 1 2 3 4 1. basalt 2. gabbro 3. rhyolite 4. granite 1,2: mafic rocks 3,4: felsic rocks 1,3: extrusive rocks 2,4: intrusive rocks Mafic: dark-colored, Mg-, Fe- rich, high density, ~3 g/cm 3 . Mostly form oceanic crust. Felsic: light-colored, Si-, Al- rich, low density, ~2.7 g/cm 3 . Mostly form continental crust. Intrusive: cools slowly, large crystals. Extrusive: cools rapidly, small crystals. (Stanley, 2009, Earth System  History)
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH (Stanley, 2009, Earth System History; Kump, Kasting & Crane, 2010, The Earth System) Chemical composition, vs. physical behavior Oceanic crust: ~3-10 km thick, basaltic rock, dense, young (< ~180 Ma, million years) Continental crust: ~35 km thick by average, granitic rock, light, old (up to ~4 Ga, billion years) Mantle: ~2900 km thick, Mg-Fe silicates (very dense rock)
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K PLATE TECTONICS: 1) HISTORY OVERVIEW (Ruddiman, 2014, Earth’s Climate: Past and Future) 8 large plates (+ a dozen more small ones) Average speed: ~4 cm/yr 3 types of motion result in 3 types of boundaries: sliding toward (subduction zones), sliding away (ridge axes), sliding along (transform faults) Lithospheric plates
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K PLATE TECTONICS: 1) HISTORY OVERVIEW (Ruddiman, 2014, Earth’s Climate: Past and Future) “Continental drifting”
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