5.DEEP TIME CLIMATE - ES8007 Climate and Climate Change...

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y.sg ES8007 Climate and Climate Change ES1007 Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate © NEA-MSS Deep-Time Climate Change -Part I Asst. Prof. WANG Xianfeng Asian School of the Environment Nanyang Technological University 8 March, 2016
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K EARTH’S CLIMATE IN THE DEEP-TIME o A quick review of what have we learnt already, o Scientific methodology, o Scale matters, o Origin of the elements o Evolution of Earth’s atmosphere o Faint Young Sun paradox, o Snowball Earth hypothesis
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K BUILD ON WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT SO FAR Greenhouse gases e.g. water vapour H 2 O, carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , Ozone O 3 , ammonia NH 3 Solar radiation (~340 W/m 2 ) Earth’s internal heat (~0.09 W/m 2 ) (primordial heat and radioactive decay) Climate system complex interactions among atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere (rock, land surface) Feedback positive and negative feedbacks between different (sub)components in the climate system
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY Collecting data (observations and measurements) Proposing hypothesis Testing hypothesis (accept, modify or reject) Ockham’s razor: the simplest explanation of a set of observations is the most likely explanation
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the SCALE MATTERS It is all a matter of time scale. An event that would be unthinkable in a hundred years may be inevitable in a hundred million. --- Carl Sagan
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the HISTORY OF THE EARTH A geologic time chart. Source: Geological Time Scale by Dr. Andrew MacRae. Hadean ~3.8 Byr Oldest sedimentary rock ~2.4 Byr Rise of atm. O2
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K EARTH’S CLIMATE IN THE DEEP-TIME Tectonics, Planetary evolution, Solar output Extremely slow responses Million to billion years Continental position, uplift and mountain weathering, major glaciations Origins of atmosphere, ocean and life, etc.
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y.sg ES8007 Climate and Climate Change ES1007 Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate © NEA-MSS Deep-Time Climate Change -Part II Asst. Prof. WANG Xianfeng Asian School of the Environment Nanyang Technological University 8 March, 2016
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All objects emit radiation as long as they have a non-zero temperature on the k elvin (K) scale. x °C = (273.15 + x ) K KEY QUESTIONS How did the elements originate?
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