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3/2/2016 1 Lecture 19 CHMY 141 Spring 2016 sp 3 Orbitals Combination of one s orbital and three p orbitals Resultant orbitals are 109.5° apart Common in four bonded carbon compounds
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3/2/2016 2 sp 2 Orbitals Results from an s orbital mixing with two p orbitals Resultant hybrid orbitals are 120° apart sp 2 hybridization When would we have this type of hybridization? Example: Consider a molecule that contains C, H, and O C needs to form 3 bonding groups but only has 2 single e C will hybridize to form sp 2 orbitals
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3/2/2016 3 Single and Multiple Bonds When orbitals overlap end to end they form a bond called a sigma bond ( σ‐ bond) When orbitals overlap side by side they form a pi bond ( π‐ bond) Single bonds consist of a σ‐ bond Double bonds consist of a σ‐ bond and a π‐ bond Triple bonds consist of a σ‐ bond and 2 π‐ bonds
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3/2/2016 4 Bond Rotation σ‐ bonds: groups can rotate around the bond without breaking it π‐ bonds: cannot rotate without breaking the bond; they are fixed in place
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