social lecture 11 - group influence

social lecture 11 - group influence - Social Influence in...

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Social Influence in Groups I. Social Facilitation II. Social Loafing III. Deindividuation IV. Decision Making – polarization, groupthink
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Group : Two or more people who interact, influence one another, and share a common identity (perceive one another as “us”) Why join groups? 1. Attain goals/complete tasks 2. Social identity/social relations
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I. Social Facilitation Mere Presence of Others Social facilitation Strengthening of dominant responses whether correct or incorrect in the presence of others Boosts performance on easy (simple) tasks Impairs performance on difficult (complex) tasks
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Sample Research on Social Facilitation Triplett (1898): bicyclists rode faster with other bicyclists than when racing alone Moore (1917): performance on multiplication problems inhibited by passive audience Allport (1920): performance facilitated on simple tasks and inhibited on complex tasks when in the presence of an audience or co-actors Michaels et al (1982) : presence of audience facilitated (inhibited) performance by skilled (unskilled) pool players
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Skilled vs. Unskilled Pool Shooters - Social Facilitation (Michaels et al., 1982) No audience Audience present 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Unskilled players Skilled players % of shots made
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Explaining Social Facilitation A. Arousal/vigilence Theory (Zajonc) B. Distraction Theory (Baron) C. Evaluation Apprehension Theory (Cottrell)
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A. Arousal/vigilence Theory (Zajonc) Presence of Others [Potential for Interaction Arousal] Facilitation of Dominant Responses If the dominant (well learned) response is correct, performance is facilitated If incorrect, performance is impaired Based on Hull’s learning theory (E=HxD)
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Test of Arousal Interpretation (Zajonc & Sales study 1) Method : Cockroaches run a simple or complex maze either alone or in the presence of an audience Results :
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Test of Arousal Interpretation (Zajonc & Sales study 2) Method : Subjects viewed some nonsense words frequently ( dominant ) and others less often ( subordinate ); then asked to recognize words flashed quickly while either ALONE or with an AUDIENCE Results :
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B. Distraction Theory (Baron)
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