# mar_4_16 - POPM 3240*01 March 4 2016 Data analysis in...

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POPM 3240*01 March 4, 2016 Data analysis in case-control studies Compare proportion of exposure in cases and controls If exposure is positively associated with outcome, expect higher degree of exposure in cases vs. controls --> reverse if there is a negative association Like other observational studies --> use a 2x2 table, apply χ 2 test for significance Measures of association Cannot calculate incidence, risk of disease in population --> no RR May calculate OR = ad bc Only measure of association for case-control studies, only measure valid for all observational studies Why can we not calculate RR for case-control studies? RR is ratio of incidence (risk of disease) in exposed and unexposed In case-control studies, we set incidence in study population --> RR is not possible to calculate Approximate RR by OR Measures of effect tin case-control studies Estimate APe by ( OR 1 ) OR May estimate PAF Only if controls are representative of larger reference population

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