feb_22_16 - POPM 3240*01 Relationships between exposures...

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POPM 3240*01 February 22, 2016 Relationships between exposures and outcomes Strength of Association Risk Ratio (RR) Odds Ratio (OR) Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) Measures of effect In exposed group Risk Difference (RD) Attributable Proportion (exposed) (Ape) In population Population Attributable Risk (PAR) Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) Risk Ratio (RR) risk of disease in exposed risk of disease in unexposed = ( a ( a + b ) ) ( c ( c + d ) ) Rates, null value of 1 --> RR=1 means that there is no association between E and O RR>1 indicates positive association, may or may not be causal RR<1 indicates negative association, may or may not be protective/sparing If 95% CI includes RR=1, result is not statistically significant Interpreting ratios less than 1 Take reciprocal, flip exposure groups Typically seen in protective factors (eg. Vaccination) Odds Ratio (OR) Interpreted similarly to RR Applicable to case-control studies, where RR is not
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