Reading Notes #4 - Sarrah Clark-Chapin Sociology 3150...

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Sarrah Clark-Chapin Sociology 3150 Reading Notes #4 February 17, 2016 Chapter XVI The Division of Labor in Society [1893]: Emile Durkheim Division of Labor (The Problem) Actual inception = Era of Antiquity Recent Origins Within the last century of 1893 Society now aware Adam Smith 1 st to coin the terminology Now widespread phenomenon Includes everyone Trends in Modern Industry = NO more illusions Increased powerful machinery Large-scale groupings Power Capital Inside Factories Division of labor to include Demarcated jobs Extremely specialized Each part = portion of finished product But each product is itself a specialty entailing the existence of others.” (p.220) Even Agriculture is included Machines built to separate tasks for farming Split up jobs to more workers as farms become Agribusiness Economists proclaim Division of Labor a necessity Condition of progress For human societies Observe increased influence Most diverse sectors of society Functions are becoming more specialized Judicial / Political / Administrative The Functions of the Division of Labor Social solidarity comes from division of labor Self-evident truth Division of labor = highly developed
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Engenders solidarity Need to determine degree of Solidarity % of contribution to integration for society Necessary to what extent Is it essential factor For social cohesion Ancillary OR Secondary condition Answers compare Social bond vs. Others Measures total effect Social Solidarity = Moral Phenomenon NOT amenable to Exact observation OR measurement Tools needed Internal Data Escapes humans External Data Symbolizes the solidarity Study the Internal through the External Visible Symbol Tool = LAW Social Solidarity exists as non-material Presence in perceptible effects If Strong, Men are attracted to each other Ensures multiple contacts Multiplies opportunities Mutual relationships Closer a society is Higher chance of maintaining Various relationships Individual OR group Social Life becomes lasting, leads to definite form of organization Law is stable precise example Of organization Life in a society needs law / legal activity To enlarge its scope Life and Law grow bigger together Some relationships governed by Custom instead of law Exceptions to legal rule Custom usually out of step with law Occasionally inspired by different Ethos (ethics) Custom can typically be basis for Law Social Solidarity varies from group to group Family / political One common trait General tendency for sociability
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Specific differences Domestic / professional / national Study of Solidarity lies in Sociology Solidarity = social fact Can only be studied Through social effects Dependent on individual organism Exists through
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