Answer to RTM 404 Midterm

Answer to RTM 404 Midterm - Question 1 As stated in the...

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Question 1: As stated in the narrative above the Toraja people of Sulawesi, Indonesia grew much resentment towards tourists due to having to adapt their sacred ceremonies to meet the needs of tourists in the late 1980s. As a result of the resentment some refused and felt as though their culture and traditions were under threat and tourists experienced unauthentic experiences when they visited. The following essay will explore the four cultural differences that Scollon and Scollon believe may have prompted the Toraja communities to resist. These cultural differences are ideology, socialization, forms of discourse and face systems. The first reason cultural difference presented by Scollon and Scollon is ideology. Ideology includes the groups history, worldview, beliefs, values and religion. As expected the Toraja community considered their funerals to be the most important and sacred celebration ritual of all. Their funerals lasted several days to sometimes even years and consisted of water buffalo offerings, feats, celebrations of the individual and more. Due to its uniqueness Toraja funerals were exploited and became a popular tourist destination. As a result of the exploitation the Toraja community were forced to reestablish their ceremonies to meet the needs of tourists; however, the Toraja people did not taking a liking to this change or the tourists. Their thought process was that if they rejected tourism then they could prevent further changes. The second cultural difference that Scollon and Scollon address is socialization. Socialization covers education, enculturation, acculturation and theories of learning. This applies to the Toraja narrative because it addresses the way each individual learns within a community. There are two ways that Scollon and Scollon say that this can happen and that is through enculturation and acculturation. Enculturation is the process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its practices and values. Acculturation is the process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. From the passage given it is clear that the Toraja community were big advocated of enculturation rather than acculturation. Again, if the Tojara people conformed for the tourists it would take away from their belief in enculturation and they would lose their culture and history over time. This tribe wanted to preserve and strengthen their customs and traditions, not lose them which is another reason why the Tojara community rejected tourism. Another cultural difference that helps explains the rejection of tourism by the Toraja community is Scollon and Scollon’s forms of discourse explanation. Forms of discourse includes information, relationship, negotiation, group harmony, functions of language, non-verbal communication, kinesics and proxemics. While on one hand the Tojara community could have
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