lect13 - Lect13 Later Evolution of Homo THE APPEARANCE OF...

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Lect13 Later Evolution of Homo THE APPEARANCE OF ARCHAIC HOMO SAPIENS. Beginning around 600,000- 400,000 years ago, there was a transition from H. erectus (or H. ergaster as some people call H. erectus -like specimens found in Africa) to H. heidelbergensis ). There is no evidence that this transition ever happened in Asia. The cutoff point between archaic Homo and our own species Homo sapiens is somewhat arbitrary. The transitional fossils that look most like modern humans are all from Africa. Examples: Bodo, Ethiopia 600 kya brain volume 1100 cc (signs of cannibalism) Kabwe (Broken Hill1) Zambia ~300 kya brain volume 1280 cc Sima de los Huesos, Spain ~400-600 kya brain volumes 1125-1390 cc Lifestyle A) Boxgrove, England. About 500,000 ya warm interglacial. A couple H. heidelbergensis fossils and hundreds of bones and Acheulian tools. Animals as large as wooly rhinocerous have cutmarks on them. One horse scapula had a spear thrust through it. Fauna in the area include lions, hyenas, wolves, giant deer, rabbits, frogs, birds. B) Wooden thrusting spears from Shoeningen , Germany. These are too large and heavy to be thrown, and no anatomical changes in the shoulder to indicate regular throwing until H. sapiens . C) AMBRONA (Spain): a possible "kill" site containing the bones of many elephants killed or which died over several successive seasons. Interspersed among the bones are stone tools of the Acheulean tradition. Dates to about 300,000. Some investigators believe that the site is evidence that H. heidelbergensis cooperated in herding elephants into bogs, where they got "bogged down" and were killed. Others argue that the elephants could have gotten stuck there naturally and were scavenged by H. heidelbergensis . D) Several H. Heidelbergensis sites and early Archaic Homo sapiens show clear signs of cannibalism. These are artificial openings in the foramen magnum to extract the brain and cutmarks and burned bones showing that hominids were butchered and cooked. Recently reported (Science Oct 99) finds also show that Neanderthals practiced cannibalism. Brain Expansion - Later Homo had much larger brains than early Homo. H. erectus brain size grew from about 800cc to around 1100 cc during the 1.8 million years it existed. H. heidelbergensis showed brain size from 1100 to 1400 cc. Given that
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