FOOD SCIEN
water+hardness [1796432]

water+hardness [1796432] - Hardness FOOD 4260 Water...

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Hardness FOOD 4260 Water Management in Food Processing
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What is water hardness? Water hardness is primarily the amount of calcium and magnesium and other divalent metal ions in solution measured by adding up the concentrations of divalent metal ions and converting this value to an equivalent concentration of: calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (mg/L) of water
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sources of water hardness Water hardness in most groundwater is naturally occurring from weathering of limestone, and calcium bearing minerals Hardness can also occur locally in groundwater from chemical and mining industry effluent or excessive application of lime to the soil in agricultural areas
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Hardness formation Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid (1) which at ordinary environmental pH exists mostly as bicarbonate ion (2) . Microscopic marine organisms take this up as carbonate (4) to form calcite skeletons which, over millions of years, have built up extensive limestone deposits.
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  • Summer '15
  • Bicarbonate, Hard water, Calcium carbonate

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