Water+acidity+and+alkalinity [1796431]

Water+acidity+and+alkalinity [1796431] - Acidity and...

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Acidity and Alkalinity
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Acidity Acidity is a measure of a solution’s capacity to react with a strong base (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) to a predetermined pH value. Quantitative Aggregate property – CO 2 is the major component of acidity in unpolluted surface water Biological action of organic matter - CO 2 expressed as an equivalent concentration: calcium carbonate (mg/L CaCO3)
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Acidity measurement is based on the total acidic constituent of a solution (strong and weak acids, hydolyzing salts) It is possible to have highly acidic water but have moderate pH values. pH of a sample can be very low but have a relatively low acidity. Acidity is similar to a buffer in that the higher the acidity, the more neutralizer is required to neutralize.
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Acidity acidity in water indicates corrosive properties role in regulating biological processes and chemical reactions (chemical coagulation and flocculation) pH 6-9.5 important not a public health issue carbonated beverages
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Acidity / pH Water having a pH < 8.5 contains acidity pH > 4.5 - CO 2 is major component pH < 4.5 - strong mineral acids The Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) for pH is 6.5 to 8.5 on pH scale as established by the EPA.
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Effects on aquatic life Most freshwater lakes, streams, and ponds have a natural pH in the range of 6 to 8. Acid deposition has harmful ecological effects when the pH of aquatic systems falls below 6 and especially below 5. As the pH approaches 5, non-desirable species of plankton and mosses may begin to invade, and populations of some fish disappear. - Below pH 5, fish populations begin to disappear, the bottom is covered with undecayed material, and mosses may dominate - Below a pH of 4.5, the water is essentially devoid of fish. Aluminium ions (Al 3+ ) attached to minerals in nearby soil can be released into lakes - kill many kinds of fish increased acidity in surface waters interferes with fish reproductive cycle due to low Ca levels
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CO 2 Greenhouse Gas planet’s seas quickly absorb about 85 % of humankind’s CO 2 emissions, as water and air mix at the ocean’s surface 89 % of the carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater -bicarbonate ion 10 % as carbonate ion 1 % as dissolved gas pH has changed from 8.2 to 8.1
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Acid Rain
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Food Industry Discharge effluents that are acidic Pickling operations Cheese (whey) Greek yogurt CIP cleaning – acid cleaning Rinsing – juice,soft drink industries pH (acidity) is used in calculation of municipal surcharge
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Acidity Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater recommends titration with NaOH(standard solution) to end point pH of 3.7 to determine mineral acidity titrate to pH 8.3 to determine total acidity bromphenol blue indicator gives a sharp end point change from yellow to blue-violet.
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Primary Standard
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