Cognitive Development - Schema(Scheme Basic actions of...

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Schema (Scheme) - Basic actions of knowing, concept, mental category - Physical actions (looking, reaching) - Mental actions (comparing, classifying) - Framework that individuals use to understand the world - Schemas change as individual develops - Organization -> as people act on their environments, an inborn mental process causes them to derive generalizable schemes from specific experiences - Adaptation -> Process through which schemes change - 3 processes: Assimilation, Accommodation, and Equilibration Adaptation - Assimilation : process of absorbing new experiences or information into existing schemes - Process is active and selective - Pay attention to things we already have schemes for (an infant learns to grasp an object in her hand and sucks on it; sucks on everything she sees - Accommodation : process of modifying existing schemes as a result of new experiences or creating new schemes when old ones no longer handle the data (infant sees ball too big to grasp. She learns to hold it by her arms and lick it - Equilibration : process of restructuring schemes to create a balance of assimilation and accommodation (infant learns some objects are too big to grasp or suck onto What causes cognitive development according to Piaget? - Biology - Maturation: physical (brain) - Equilibration - Environment - Social transmission (learn from others in environment) - Experience (child’s own opportunities to act on world and observe results) - All 4 must interact and support one another Infancy - Sensorimotor Stage (birth - 2 years) - Children understand the world through sensory and motor schemes - Knowledge develops through sensory and motor abilities - Object permanence (8-12 months) - The knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they can’t be seen - Experiences may affect its development - A-Not-B error (8-12 months): tendency to reach to where objects have been found before, rather than to where they were last hidden Piaget’s View on Infancy - Sensorimotor period : Birth-24 months - Assimilate incoming information into limites schemes - Sensory and motor: looking, listening, sucking, grasping - Infant’s experience is tied to the present - No memories, plans, intentions - Gradually changes over first 24 months - Transition to Preoperational Stage - 6 substage model: Each substage represents an advance - Primary Circular Reactions: Involving self
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- Secondary Circular Reactions: Involving objects - Tertiary Circular Reactions: Trial and error exploration Challenges to Piaget’s View - Infants’ memory is limited - Challenge: Habituation and dishabituation studies suggest that memory abilities are present at birth - Rovee-Collier demonstrates that 3-month old babies can remember a specific learning experience - Children couldn’t imitate others’ facial gestures until 8-12 months - Challenge: newborns are able to imitate some facial gestures (tongue protusion) -
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