supercritical fluids - fluids Foodapplications .Dueto ,...

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Biocatalysis and supercritical fluids-advantages of using enzymes in supercritical  fluids  Food applications Carbon dioxide is the most common supercritical fluid in the food industry. Due to  the non-toxicity and low critical temperature, it can be used to extract thermally labile food components and the product is not contaminated with residual solvent. Extraction of oil in food- extraction of oils from potato chips and other snack foods  are been carried out. In addition, supercritical carbon dioxide has also been used to  extract lilac, essential oils, black pepper, nutmeg, vanilla, basil, ginger, chamomile,  and cholesterol. decaffeination of coffee by supercritical carbon dioxide. Soaking of about 2 hours is  necessary for efficient extraction of caffeine from coffee beans by supercritical carbon dioxide Environmental applications- supercritical fluids are used as replacements for  conventional hazardous chemicals such as hexane. Supercritical fluid extraction has  been proposed as an alternative technique for soil remediation and activated carbon  regeneration Dry-cleaning [ edit ] Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCD) can be used instead of PERC ( perchloroethylene ) or other undesirable solvents for  dry-cleaning . Supercritical carbon dioxide sometimes  intercalates  into buttons, and, when the SCD is depressurized, the buttons pop, or break apart. Detergents  that are soluble in carbon dioxide improve the solvating power of the solvent. [13] Supercritical fluid chromatography [ edit ] Supercritical fluid chromatography  (SFC) can be used on an analytical scale, where it  combines many of the advantages of  high performance liquid chromatography  (HPLC) and  gas chromatography  (GC). It can be used with non-volatile and thermally labile analytes  (unlike GC) and can be used with the universal  flame ionization detector  (unlike HPLC), as  well as producing narrower peaks due to rapid diffusion. In practice, the advantages offered  by SFC have not been sufficient to displace the widely used HPLC and GC, except in a few  cases such as  chiral  separations and analysis of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. [14]  For manufacturing, efficient preparative  simulated moving bed  units are available. [15]  The purity  of the final products is very high, but the cost makes it suitable only for very high-value  materials such as pharmaceuticals. Chemical reactions [ edit ] Changing the conditions of the reaction solvent can allow separation of phases for product  removal, or single phase for reaction. Rapid diffusion accelerates diffusion controlled  reactions. Temperature and pressure can tune the reaction down preferred pathways, e.g., to 
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