Unit 3 Study Guide(1) - UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE(MICR 3050 FALL...

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UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE (MICR 3050, FALL 2014) OBJECTIVES: Chapter 9.1 – 9.3, 9.8, 16.9 1. Define antimicrobial, antibiotic, synthetic chemotherapeutic agent, and semi-synthetic chemotherapeutic agent. a. antimicrobial (agent) – an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth b. antibiotic – microbial products or their derivatives that kill susceptible microbes OR inhibit their growth i. ex. penicillin, streptomycin ii. sulfa drugs (dyes) – NOT antibiotics c. chemotherapeutic agents – chemical agents (antimicrobials) used to treat disease by destroying pathogenic microbes or inhibiting their growth within a host i. synthetic – not made with microbes but used for antimicrobial purposes 1. ex . sulfa drugs ii. semi-synthetic – made with modified microbes to enhance antimicrobial properties 1. ex . penicillin – fungus; streptomycin - bacteria 2. Know and describe the general characteristics of antimicrobial drugs including the terms used to describe their action, spectrum of activity, and their effectiveness. a. selective toxicity – ability of drug to kill or inhibit pathogen while damaging the host as little as possible i. therapeutic dose – drug level required for clinical treatment ii. toxic does – drug level at which drug becomes too toxic for patient (produces side effects) b. therapeutic index – ratio of toxic dose to therapeutic dose i. the larger the therapeutic index, the better – so you can prescribe a low dose toxic dose is extremely high so it takes a lot of the drug to produce side effects ii. TD 50 ED 50 - toxic dose for 50% of patients/effective dose for 50% of patients c. spectrum i. narrow-spectrum drugs – effective only against a limited variety of pathogens ii. broad - spectrum drugs – attack many different types of pathogens d. primary effect i. cidal agent – kills microbes 1. total cell count will plateau, but viable cell count will drop 2. if cell lyses, both viable and total cell counts will drop ii. static agent – inhibits growth of microbes 1. some drugs are static to inhibit growth until the immune system can take over – many target protein synthesis 2. both total and viable cell counts will plateau e. side effects – undesirable effects of drugs on host cells i. low side effects for drugs with high therapeutic index 3. Explain how antimicrobials are classified. a. molecular structure – chemical structure b. mechanism of action – what they target and how they inhibit/kill microbes c. spectrum of antimicrobial activity – broad vs narrow d. 3 categories
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i. synthetic ii. semisynthetic iii. antibiotics 4.
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