LEC06 - Enzymes lower the energy needed for a reaction to...

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Enzymes lower the energy needed for a reaction to proceed Reactants  Products G = G products – G reactants (Gibbs free energy)
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(transition state) The rate of the reaction is determined by height of the energy hill
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Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy
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Activation Energy G only determines the direction of a reaction and not the rate of the reaction. Input of energy ( the Activation Energy ) is required to initiate reactions. Enzymes lower the AE by interacting with the transition state
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Enzymes lower the free energy of the transition state by interacting with the transition state Nothing happens (like an antibody)
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What about reactions that are energetically unfavorable? Coupled with energetically favorable reactions Most common is ATP hydrolysis
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In an uncoupled ATP hydrolysis, energy is lost as heat
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Transfer reaction conserve energy in intermediates Coupled reactions usually work through transfer Either 1 phosphate, 2 phosphates or AMP is transferred to the substrate
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Phosphorylation: transfer of phosphate to substrate
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Transfer of 2 phosphates
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Adenylation: transfer of AMP
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