Spinal Column - Spinal Column Vertebrae Cervical 7...

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Spinal Column Vertebrae - Cervical – 7 - Thoracic (ribs) – 12 - Lumbar – 5 - Sacral – 5 - Coccyx – 4 - Total of 33 vertebrae Curves of the spine - Lordotic: anterior lumbar curve - Kyphotic: posterior cervical thoracic curve (hunchback) - Scoliosis: lateral curvature Lumbar Vertebrae - Largest within the spinal segment - Become larger as you go distal due to increased weight supporting the inferior vertebral column - L5 is the largest of all the vertebrae o Supports weight of upper thorax/body Vertebral body - Vertebral foramen: posterior to the vertebral body and protects and houses the spinal cord - Transverse processes (2): project lateral and somewhat posterior o Located between pedicle and lamina - Spinous process (1): posterior, easy to palpate, and has important muscular attachment - Pedicles (2): between the body and transverse processes - Lamina (2): between the transverse and spinous processes - Mammillary processes (2): small projection coming off of the superior articulating processes o Only on lumbar vertebrae - Superior/inferior articulating processes: structures articulate with one another and form a facet joint on each side - Vertebral arch: posterior to the body and consists of the pedicles, lamina, spinous and transverse processes, and superior/inferior articulating processes Spinous process lamina transverse process pedicle - Examine vertebra from a sagittal (side) view to see various notches
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o Superior vertebral notch o Inferior vertebral notch Together they form the intervertebral foramen and spinal nerves come off the spinal cord - Facet joint: formed by a superior articulating process of a vertebrae below and an inferior articulating process of a vertebrae above o Two per vertebrae and each has a joint capsule o Influences rotation and other motions Limited in lumbar but significant in cervical - Pars interarticularis: area between superior and inferior facets of a vertebrae o Common site for stress fractures, especially in lumbar spine o “scotty dog” Sacrum - Latin for “sacred” and comprised of five fused bones - Provides strength and stability to pelvis and transmits body weight to the pelvic girdle o Superior half is weight bearing and inferior portion isn’t - Base of sacrum has a superior articular process that joins with the inferior articular process of L5 - Posteriorly you have the medium and lateral sacral crests o Actually is a fusion of S1-S5 spinous processes Apex of Sacrum - Superior and posterior to the apex is the sacral hiatus o Hiatus is horseshoe shaped o Leads into the sacral canal and houses spinal nerves - Five fused bodies with four ossifications in between o Four transverse lines anterior that indicates fusion lines - Four openings on each side of the sacrum are known as the sacral foramina o Spinal nerves will exit through theses foramina Coccyx - Greek for “cuckoo” and comprise of four fused bones o Some individuals may have one more/less - The last three coccygeal bones often fuse during midlife o Form a “beak” like bone Lumbar region muscles -
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