The Cardiovascular System - The Cardiovascular System Heart...

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The Cardiovascular System Heart - Average heart pumps about 5-6 quarts of blood throughout the body per minute - Located between the sternum and the vertebral column o When doing CPR the heart is compressed between these two structures - 2/3 of the heart is left of the midline and 1/3 is to the right - Apex (point) of the heart points inferior, anterior, and to the left - Opposite side or base is directed superior, posterior, and to the right - Heart size varies with each individual, but on average, the size of a clenched fist Coverings of the Heart - Heart and proximal portions of the vessels at the base are enclosed by a loose fitting, double layered sac known as the pericardium or pericardial sac o Attached to the diaphragm, posterior sternum, and the vertebrae o If it becomes inflamed, results in pericarditis which is build-up of fluids ( itis inflammation) Results in cardiac tamponade, resulting in cardiac failure Tamponade : compression of the heart due to excessive pericardial fluid Layers of the Heart - Heart wall is composed of three layers of tissue: o Epicardium (outer layer): thin protective membrane that contains blood vessels that nourish the heart wall o Myocardium ( myo – muscle): forms the bulk of the heart wall and is composed of cardiac muscle tissue Provides contractions to eject blood from the heart throughout the body
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