Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Carbohydrates 45 65 cal 4 cal/g...

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Chapter 4 Carbohydrates - 45 – 65% cal - 4 cal/g - Vegetables, fruit Colorful, rainbow, limit starches - Pasta, bread, rice, cereal (grains) Whole vs. refried - Sugar, honey, agave nectar (sweeteners) - Dairy - Beans, nuts, and legumes - Fats (butter, oil) and meat do not contain carbs - Primary fuel for our body Simple - Monosaccharides Fructose Glucose: made by plants (energy) Galactose - Disaccharides Lactose: dairy (glucose + Galactose) Sucrose: most common, table sugar (glucose + fructose) Maltose: malt (glucose + glucose) - Trisaccharide - Oligosaccharides Complex - Polysaccharides - Chains of glucose linked together to store carbs - Starch : storage in plants Amylose Amylopectin - Glycogen : storage in animals Branched Stored in liver and muscle cells Only limited amounts Important source of glucose for blood
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- Fiber : storage in plants but indigestible Dietary fiber : naturally found in foods Functional fiber : added to food for beneficial effect Soluble (pectin) Dissolves in water Fermented by intestinal bacteria Viscous, have thickening prop Traps cholesterol, bile, other nutrients “binds” Delay in stomach emptying Insoluble (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) Doesn’t dissolve in H 2 O “bulk” Feeling full Speed up through GI tract Laxative effect Grains : important staple and source of nutrition - Kernel (edible parts): bran, endosperm, germ - Refined grains : milling removes bran and germ Some B vitamins, iron, phytochemicals, and dietary fiber lost as a result - Enriched grains : folic, acid, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron added to restore some of the lost nutrition
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