Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Physical Fitness good health or...

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Chapter 11 Physical Fitness: good health or physical condition, primarily result of exercise and proper nutrition Five basic components: - Cardiorespiratory endurance: ability to sustain cardiorespiratory exercise for extended time o Cardiovascular and respiratory systems must provide enough - Muscle strength: ability to produce force for brief time - Muscle endurance: ability to exert force for a long period of time without fatigue - Flexibility: range of motion around a joint - Body composition: proportion of muscle, fat, water, and other body tissues which make up body weight Benefits of physical fitness: - Overall health and physical fitness - Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes - Improved body composition, bone health and immune system - Improves sleep and reduces stress Cardiorespiratory exercise can improve cardiorespiratory endurance and body composition - Continuous activities that use large muscle groups - Primarily aerobic because it uses oxygen o Heart rate and stroke volume increased to maximize blood flow delivery to muscles - Reduces risk of heart disease, helps maintain healthy weight and improve body composition Strength training can improve muscle strength, muscles endurance, and body composition - Increase muscle strength: low number of repetitions using heavy weights - Increase muscle endurance: high number of repetitions using lighter weights - Important to rest between sets of an exercise and between workouts to prevent muscle strains and injury FITT Principle: helps you design a fitness program: frequency, intensity, time, type - Rate of perceived exertion (RPE): measures intensity of cardiorespiratory exercise - Repetitions of maximum (RM): refers to intensity of weight training - 30 minutes of activity for moderate health benefits - 60 to 90 minutes daily to lose weight effectively
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Use of carbs, fat, protein during exercise - Energy during first few minutes of physical activity is provided by anaerobic energy production (without oxygen) from breakdown of: o Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) o Creatine phosphate o Limited amount stored in cells - As exercise continues, oxygen intake and aerobic energy production increases o Carbohydrate (glucose) and fatty acids broken down to yield ATP energy via aerobic metabolism - Carbohydrate is the primary energy source during high-intensity exercise o Carbs from blood glucose and stored glycogen in muscle and liver: about 2 hours of exercise o Well-trained muscles store 20 to 50 % more glycogen than untrained muscles o Liver glycogen maintains normal blood glucose o Lactic acid is produced at high exercise intensities and shuttled to other tissues
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