Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 A mans diet and lifestyle affect...

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Chapter 15 - A man’s diet and lifestyle affect the health of his sperm o Smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, obesity may decrease sperm production and function o Zinc and folate associated with healthy sperm production o Antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotenoids) may help protect sperm from free-radical damage. o Should consume well-balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, lean meats, and dairy foods - Women need to adopt a healthy lifestyle before conception o Attain a healthy weight o Get plenty of folic acid o Moderate fish and caffeine consumption o Avoid cigarettes and other toxic substances - During the first trimester, the fertilized egg develops into a fetus o A full-term pregnancy is approximately 40 weeks long and is divided into three trimesters o The moment of conception marks the first trimester o During the first few days, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube to embed itself in the lining of the uterus o After the eighth week of pregnancy, the developing embryo is called a fetus - Morning sickness and cravings are common o One of the biggest myths of pregnancy is that morning sickness happens only in the mornings o The causes of morning sickness are unknown, but fluctuating hormone levels may play a role o Some women develop an aversion to certain foods; others crave certain foods - Adequate weight gain supports the baby’s growth o Healthy women gain, on average, 27.5 pounds during the entire pregnancy - The need for certain nutrients increases o From the moment of conception, a pregnant woman needs certain vitamins and minerals in higher quantities o Most needs can be met with diet, but the need for some nutrients, including folate, iron, zinc, copper, and calcium, that it may not be met through food or increased absorption - Vegans and vegetarians need to ensure linolenic acid and vitamin B12 needs are met o Also have higher zinc and iron needs o Too much preformed vitamin A can be toxic: limit supplements to no more than 5,000 IU o Use sugar substitutes in moderation o Most nutrient needs can be met by balanced diet - Pregnancy increases the risk for foodborne illness
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o Listeria monocytogenes may cause miscarriages, premature labor, low birth weight, developmental problems, even infant death o Avoid raw and undercooked meat, fish, or poultry; unpasteurized milk, cheese, juices; raw sprouts - Pregnant women should avoid many other substances o Nicotine, alcohol, illicit drugs should be avoided o Caffeine intake should be restricted - Critical periods
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