The_Origin_and_Historical_Development_of - UDK 658.626(6 5...

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Članci/Papers 179 JEL classification: M31, M37 1. THE INTRODUCTION It is often stated that branding and advertising are as old as human soci- ety. Furthermore, it is believed that branding comes from the prehistoric age (Almquist & Roberts, 2000, p.10). Many authors contributed signifi- cantly to the research of branding and advertising history (Bastos & Levy, 2012; Moore & Reid, 2008; O’Barr, 2005). There was no use of words such as “brand”, “advertising”, “promotion” and “public relations” in the ancient times. However, these activities existed in various forms in the activities of ancient civilizations. The very word “brand” stems from Middle Ages Nordic word “bran- dr”, meaning “burn down” (i.e. make a hot iron stamp on animals or ob- jects), in order to distinguish the ownership (Leibtag, 2014, p. 9). The Vi- kings brought the word to England, but it was introduced in a dictionary no earlier than 1552 (Nordin et al., 2010, p. 179). The word “advertising” comes from ancient Latin word “advertere”, meaning “turning to some- thing”, with the aim of provoking somebody‘s attention (Jenks, 1995, p. 27). In everyday speech, the word “advertising” came into use during the mid-seventeenth century (Jenks, 1995, p. 28). However, advertising ex- ists since the occurrence of a need to influence the thinking of people, especially to provide support to the rulers or purchase goods (Jowett & O’Donnell, 2012, p. 50). The term “propaganda” will be occasionally used in this paper, as well, because it has a slightly different (often a negative) meaning, referring mainly to persuading people into certain “political or religious ideas” (Business Dictionary). Branding and advertising in contemporary conditions are mutually connected and stimulating. It is therefore important to simultaneously observe the development of branding and advertising throughout histo- ry. Even though a significant number of works have been written on the topic of the history of branding and advertising, little has been written about the practice in the ancient time. The aim of this study is to present new evidence on the practice of branding and advertising in the ancient civilizations of Africa, Asia and Europe, as well as their mutual influence based on a large number of scientific and other available sources, in ad- dition to existing views. Abstract: The development of branding  and advertising has always been mutually  conditioned. The goal of this research is  to determine the origin and show historic  development of branding and advertising  in the ancient civilizations of Africa, Asia  and Europe. The historical method of  research was used. New evidence on var- ious means of branding, advertising and  other promotional activities application  in the ancient history is presented. What  was found is that social development  imposed a need for marking of goods and  promotional activities. It was done in a 
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