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1 Jasper cylinder seal c. 2220 BCE deciphered Indus script proclamations of iron, copper-, gold-smithy, mint-work Jasper cylinder seal is a stunning example of the power of hypertexts (using hieroglyph-multiplexes) to convey precise, detailed technical information. The cylinder seal, 2.8 cm. high and 1.6 cm dia, signifies -- in an extraordinarily crisp hypertext, within limited writing space-- Indus script proclamations of iron, copper, gold-smithy, mint-work. ḍhangar bhaṭa पेढी'blacksmith furnace shop' kamar कारणीarka lokhaṇḍa aya kammaṭa'blacksmith supercargo, copper, gold, metal implements, mint' Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm) cylinder Seal with four hieroglyphs and four kneeling persons (with six curls on their hair) holding flagposts, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Mesopotamia. Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression). Cuneiform inscription: Sharpum, son of Shallum. The rest of the hieroglyph-multiplexes are a cypher signifying Sharpum's occupation as a merchant with diverse metallurgical competence The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. moon or crucible PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing
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2 water, 4. fish (with fins emphasised). A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held. koṭhāri 'crucible' Rebus: koṭhāri 'treasurer, warehouse'; kuṭhāru 'armourer' If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: رمقḳamar A رمقḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See يمږوپسor يمګوپس(Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith' कारणीor कारणीक'supercargo of a ship' (Marathi) of ingots are held in a conical jar (storage pot).The leftmost hieroglyph shows ingots in a conical-bottom storage jar (similar to the jar shown on Warka vase (See Annex: Warka vase), delivering the ingots to the temple of Inanna). Third from left, the overflowing pot is similar to the hieroglyph shown on Gudea statues. Fourth from left, the fish hieroglyph is similar to the one shown on a Susa pot containing metal tools and weapons. (See Susa pot hieroglyphs of bird and fish: Louvre Museum) Hieroglyph: meṇḍāʻlump, clotʼ(Oriya) On mED 'copper' in Eurasian languages see Annex A: Warka vase). mūhā mẽṛhẽt'iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends.' (Note ingots in storage pot superfixed on the crucible hieroglyph).The key hieroglyph is the hood of a snake seen as the left-most hieroglyph on this rolled out cylinder seal impression. I suggest that this denotes the following Meluhha gloss: Hierogyph: A. kulā'hood of serpent' Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith'; kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' Four flag-posts(reeds) with rings on top held by the kneeling persons define the four components of the iron smithy/forge.