A_GAZDASAGI_FEJLETTSEG_REGIONALIS_KULONB

A_GAZDASAGI_FEJLETTSEG_REGIONALIS_KULONB - A GAZDASGI...

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A GAZDASÁGI FEJLETTSÉG REGIONÁLIS KÜLÖNBSÉGEINEK VIZSGÁLATA AZ O SZTRÁK -M AGYAR M ONARCHIA UTÓDÁLLAMAIBAN JÁRÁSSZINT Ű ADATOK ALAPJÁN 1 D EMETER G ÁBOR 2 - R ADICS Z SOLT 3 Investigating regional differences of economic development in the successor states of Austria-Hungary based on district level data The goal of the study is to trace differences and similarities of development level in the regions of successor states of Austria-Hungary divided by new boundaries after WWI using district level variables from 1930. The key question was whether there were fault lines either coinciding with former or new borders, or differences in socio-economic development were rather characterised by gentle sloping transitions zones marking that new borders were unable to put their imprint on the development level after Versailles till the 1930s. By doing this we tried to identify the original (and persisting) economic regions of Austria-Hungary. In order to carry out the above mentioned examination 10 variables referring to economic and cultural development were collected from the database compiled by Rónai A. (1945). For the more than 850 districts (including the Regat, but leaving out Galicia) and 10 socio-economic variables ( percentage value of workers in trade and commerce in %, ratio of industrial employees and employees in public services, net reproduction rate and death rates, the proportion of illiterate people and the income/unit area of meadows , crop yield/ha) a multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to analyse the above mentioned problems. Mainly socio-economic data were selected because of their greater resistance to immediate (economic, political) changes, thus they refer to a previous stage of regional structure. To identify independent variables from among the above enumerated, a dimension reduction was carried out by applying PCA. The first factor comprises variables referring to demographic situation, alphabetisation. The proportion of industrial population and the crop yield/ha showed great, but negative correlation coefficient with this factor, which means that the first factor represents an index for traditional (preindustrial, rural) society. The second factor shows great correlation with the proportion of arable land and with the overpopulation in agriculture, the third factor represents the proportion of public servants (alone), thus the level of bureaucratization. Reading the figures it is evident that there was (and remained up to 1930) a great fault line between the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the Dual Monarchy. In this case the new borders of 1920 were definitely segregating territories of different type, while in the case of Czechoslovakia the new state borders were unable to solve the obvious territorial differences (mainly developed under the old borders) up to the 1930s. Czechoslovakia therefore was composed of two territories at different level of development (like formerly Austria-Hungary did so). Contrary to this, the Hungarian, Serbian and Slovakian districts (of the former
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