M._Schmelzer_2015_Entwickelter_Norden_un

M._Schmelzer_2015_Entwickelter_Norden_un - Entwickelter...

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Entwickelter Norden, unterent- wickelter Süden? Wissenseliten, Entwicklungshilfe und die Kon- struktion des Westens in der OEEC und OECD Matthias Schmelzer ABSTRACT The OECD and its predecessor, the OEEC, are widely regarded as paradigmatic “Western” in- ternational organizations, essentially defining what it means to be a modern capitalist state. By focusing on transnational debates about development aid within the OEEC and OECD in the 1950s and 1960s, this article analyzes how in the context of Cold War and decolonization the “West” was constructed among experts, how they dealt with intra-European discrepancies between the richer northern European and the poorer southern European countries, and how these were conceptionalized in relation to non-member countries from the global “South”. It shows how development aid within the OEEC emerged simultaneously from the apparatus of its colonial powers and from the need to deal with an intra-European North-South divide. And it argues that within this economic organization the rift running through Western Europe was primarily couched in a technical and economic language, in which the categories “developed” and “under-developed” were the central concepts. These expert debates defined a region with specific characteristics – economically backwards, poor, and structurally lacking behind the richer OECD-countries – and thus established a discourse, that came, from the 1970s onwards, to powerfully shape the explicitly geographic social scientific concept of „Southern Europe.” „Development should be understood as ,self-development‘ as well as development of others“ – so schrieb 1960 Hugh Ellis-Rees, der Vorsitzende des Rates der Organization Comparativ | Zeitschrift für Globalgeschichte und vergleichende Gesellschaftsforschung 25 (2015) Heft 5, S. 18–35.
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Entwickelter Norden, unterentwickelter Süden? Wissenseliten, Entwicklungshilfe und die Konstruktion des Westens in der OEEC und OECD | 19 for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC). 1 Diese knappe Auslegung von „Ent- wicklung“, einem der einflussreichsten polit-ökonomischen Konzepte der zweiten Hälf- te des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts, verdeutlicht, dass die komplexen politisch-identitären Implikationen des Begriffs den damaligen Beteiligten wohl bewusst waren, als sie bei der Neugründung der OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Deve- lopment) das Wort in den neuen Organisationsnamen aufnahmen. Bis dahin hatte die für die Verteilung der westeuropäischen Marshallplangelder 1948 gegründete OEEC eine geographische Abgrenzung im Titel getragen („Europa“), die durch die Aufnahme der USA und Kanadas obsolet geworden war. In langen Verhandlungen einigten sich die Diplomatinnen und Diplomaten darauf, das „E“ für „Europa“ durch ein „D“ für „Development“ zu ersetzen. Was dies jedoch genau bedeutete, und wer das sich selbst entwickelnde „Wir“ und wer „die Anderen“, die entwickelt werden sollten, sind, waren Fragen, die sich nicht so einfach beantworten ließen.
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