Croatia_in_the_Economic_Structure_of_the

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Published: Historijski zbornik 2010. br. 1, 79-98. Zagreb Croatia in the Economic Structure of the Habsburg Empire in the Light of the 1857 census 1 After the census taken under the rule of Joseph II it took more than 60 years to have a new census in the countries of the Hungarian Crown. Until the mid-19th century there was no unified census structure in the Habsburg Empire. In the majority of the Austrian lands primarily military censuses whereas e.g. in Tyrolia, Dalmatia and Vorarlberg censuses with a political focus where held on a regular basis. In Hungary, Croatia and Transylvania the conscriptions informed about the numbers of the non nobles according to age, sex and status as well as about the three basic figures of demography. After the political and administrative reorganization of the Monarchy in 1849 the need emerged for a new census. The census of 1850, however, was interrupted due to the military preparations against Prussia and was finished in summer 1851. Because of organizational difficulties and other problems related to actual realization not even contemporary literature found this census successful which can be summarized as the last attempt of the century-long effort to carry out ’censuses of feudal - military character’ in the Habsburg Empire and in Hungary. The census of 1857 is the first in the series of modern censuses that had especially demographic aspects in its focus .” 2 This was the first census where the ’ideal time’ (then 31 October) was set as it is common even today. In the census of 1850 the occupations of those conscripted were asked but the data were not evaluated. In 1857 those receiving a pay were set into 16 groups according to there occupations. The 17th rubric labelled ’other’ served to record those who were cared for (men over 14 just as women as well as children under 14 years of age), although occasionally those who did not fit into any of the other rubrics could also be recorded here. The 16 groups according to jobs included the women, too (the census of 1850 recorded only the jobs of men). According to the memorandum expl aining the census „where one person can be put into more than one group reflecting jobs or where the person’s incomes originate from various branches, only the most evident job or source of income can be taken into account. […] Nevertheless, there are, with relation to the number of population, double or triple counts, e.g. a preacher can be in state employment, too, a civil servant or a soldier can be a landowner and even a merchant can have a factory etc.” 3 In the new administrative structure elaborated after 1849 the co-countries of Hungary were separated: Croatia and Slavonia (along with Fiume/Rijeka and the Mura-region), Transylvania (together with the Partium) were directly subordinated to the imperial government as independent Crown lands, just like the Serbian Vojvodina and the Banat of Temes, to fulfill the ambitions of the Serbs. The same held true of the similarly separately governed Military Frontier.
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