Timothy_Mitchell-Carbon_Democracy_Politi

Timothy_Mitchell-Carbon_Democracy_Politi - Carbon Democracy...

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Carbon Democracy
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Carbon Democracy political power in the age of oil Timothy Mitchell
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First published by Verso 2011 © Timothy Mitchell 2011 All rights reserved e moral rights of the author have been asserted 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Verso UK: 6 Meard Street, London W1F 0EG US: 20 Jay Street, Suite 1010, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Verso is the imprint of New Le Books ISBN-13: 978-1-84467-745-0 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Typeset in Minion Pro by Hewer UK Ltd, Edinburgh Printed in the US by Maple Vail
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To Adie and JJ
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Contents Acknowledgements ix Introduction 1 1 Machines of Democracy 12 2 e Prize from Fairyland 43 3 Consent of the Governed 66 4 Mechanisms of Goodwill 86 5 Fuel Economy 109 6 Sabotage 144 7 e Crisis at Never Happened 173 8 McJihad 200 Conclusion: No More Counting On Oil 231 Bibliography 255 Index 271
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Acknowledgements I have bene ted from the comments and criticisms of participants in numerous seminars and lectures where parts of this work were presented, and from more extended discussions with Andrew Barry, Michel Callon, Geo Eley, Mahmood Mamdani and Robert Vitalis. A number of former students shared with me their work on related topics, and in several cases contributed their assistance to my own research; these include Katayoun Sha ee, Munir Fakher Eldin, Canay Özden, Firat Bozçali, Ryan Weber and Sam Rubin. Certain sections of the book draw on material I have published elsewhere. Parts of Chapter 1 rst appeared as ‘Carbon Democracy’, Economy and Society 38: 3, 2009: 399–432; parts of Chapter 7 were published in ‘ e Resources of Economics: Making the 1973 Oil Crisis’, Journal of Cultural Economy 3: 2, 2010: 189–204; and an earlier version of Chapter 8 was published as ‘McJihad: Islam in the US Global Order’, Social Text 20: 4, 2002: 1–18. ree people made a special contribution to the writing of the book. Adrian and Justine Mitchell provided a critical ear and every kind of encouragement to nish; Lila Abu-Lughod shared her irreplaceable wisdom, insight, patience and care. I cannot thank them enough.
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Introduction Fossil fuels helped create both the possibility of modern democracy and its limits. To understand the limits, this book begins by exploring what made the emergence of a certain kind of democratic politics possible, the kind I call carbon democracy. Before turning to the past, however, let me explain some of the contemporary limits I have in mind. In the wake of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, one of those limits was widely discussed. A distinctive feature of the Middle East, it has o en been said, is its lack of democracy. For many who write about the region, this lack has something to do with oil. Countries that depend upon petroleum resources for a large part of their earnings from exports tend to be less democratic. e wave of uprisings that spread across the Arab world in 2011 appeared to con rm
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