5Application and processing of alloy

5Application and processing of alloy - Chapter 11...

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Chapter 11 - 1 Chapter 11: Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys ISSUES TO ADDRESS... How are metal alloys classified and what are their common applications? What are some of the common fabrication techniques for metals?
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Chapter 11 - 2 MATERIAL SELECTION Need to select material that has the right combination of characteristic for a specific application. Need to have knowledge of the available option. Selection decision may also be influence by the ease with which metal alloys may be formed or manufactured into useful components. Alloy properties are altered by fabrication processes and in addition, further property at alteration may be induced by the employment of appropriate heat treatment
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Chapter 11 - 3 Refinement of Steel from Ore Iron Ore Coke Limestone 3CO + Fe 2 O 3 2Fe +3CO 2 C + O 2 CO 2 CO 2 + C 2CO CaCO 3 CaO+CO 2 CaO + SiO 2 + Al 2 O 3 slag purification reduction of iron ore to metal heat generation Molten iron BLAST FURNACE slag air layers of coke and iron ore gas refractory vessel
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Chapter 11 - 4 Adapted from Fig. 9.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 9.24 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams , 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.) Adapted from Fig. 11.1, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. Classification of Metal Alloys Metal Alloys Steels Ferrous Nonferrous Cast Irons <1.4wt%C 3-4.5wt%C Steels <1.4 wt% C Cast Irons 3-4.5 wt% C Fe 3 C cementite 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7 L austenite + L +Fe 3 C ferrite +Fe 3 C + L +Fe 3 C (Fe) C o , wt% C Eutectic: Eutectoid: 0.76 4.30 727ºC 1148ºC T (ºC) microstructure: ferrite, graphite/cementite
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Chapter 11 - 5 FERROUS ALLOYS Iron is the prime constituent Are produced in larger quantities than any metal type Al- Hadid/Iron Surah 57 Verse 25 We have already sent Our messengers with clear evidences and sent down with them the Scripture and the balance that the people may maintain [their affairs] in justice. And We sent down iron , wherein is great military might and benefits for the people, and so that Allah may make evident those who support Him and His messengers unseen. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might
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Chapter 11 - 6 Ferrous Alloys Iron-based alloys Nomenclature for steels (AISI/SAE) 10xx Plain Carbon Steels 11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability) 15xx Mn (1.00 - 1.65%) 40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%) 43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.40 - 0.90%), Mo (0.20 - 0.30%) 44xx Mo (0.5%) where xx is wt% C x 100 example: 1060 steel – plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C Stainless Steel >11% Cr Steels Cast Irons
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Chapter 11 - 7 FERROUS ALLOYS Their widespread use is accounted for by three factors Iron containing compounds exist in abundant quantities within the earth’s crust Metallic iron and steel alloy may be produced using relatively economical extraction, refining, alloying and fabrication technique Ferrous alloys are extremely versatile, in that they may be tailored to have a wide rang of mechanical and physical properties Disadvantages They are susceptible to corrosion
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Chapter 11 - 8 Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
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