Chap 1 ceramics - Ceramics MME2503 SEC 2 3 Dr Maizatulnisa...

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Ceramics MME2503 SEC 2 & 3 Dr Maizatulnisa Othman
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Ceramic materials are inorganic, nonmetallic materials that consist of metallic and nonmetallic elements bonded together primarily by ionic and/or covalent bond. Ceramic materials used for engineering applications can be divided into two groups: traditional ceramic materials and the engineering ceramic materials. Typically, traditional ceramics are made from three basic components: clay, silica (flint), and feldspar. -Examples of traditional ceramics are bricks and tiles used in the construction industries and electrical porcelain in the electrical industry. The engineering ceramics, in contrast, typically consist pure or nearly pure compounds such as aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon carbide (SiC), and silicon nitride (Si3N4). -Examples of the use of the engineering ceramics in high technology are silicon carbide in the high-temperature areas the experimental AGT-100 automotive gas turbine engine and aluminum oxide in the support base for integrated circuit chips in a thermal-conduction module.
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In ionic (ceramic) solids the packing of the ions is determined primarily by the following factors: The relative size of the ions in the ionic solid (assume the ions to be hard spheres with definite radii) The need to balance electro static charges to maintain electrical neutrality in the ionic solid. When ionic atom take place in solid state: 1. The energy of the atoms are lowered by the formation of the ions and their bonding into an ionic solid. 2. Ionic solid tend to have their ions packed together as dense as possible to lower the overall energy of the solid as much as possible. Thus, this limitations to dense packing are the relative sizes of the ions and the necessity for maintaining charge neutrality.
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Ionic solids consist of cations and anions. In ionic bonding some atoms lose their outer electrons to become cations and others gain outer electrons to become anions.
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