Chapter 7 SUMMARY, VOCAB, QUIZ for 6,7,8,24

Chapter 7 SUMMARY, VOCAB, QUIZ for 6,7,8,24 - Chapter 7...

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Chapter 7 Energy Metabolism
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Fundamentals of Animal Energetics Forms of energy vary in their capacity to do physiological work. Chemical-bond energy is totipotent for animals. Electrical and mechanical energy can do certain types of physiological work but are not totipotent. Heat cannot perform physiological work of any kind
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Fundamentals of Animal Energetics Animals use their absorbed energy for 3 major functions 1. Biosynthesis 2. Maintenance 3. Generation of external work Biosynthesis, which preserves some of the absorbed energy in the form of chemical energy, includes both growth and the synthesis of organic materials that are exported from the body during an individuals life.
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Fundamentals of Animal Energetics Some energy is degraded to heat (low-grade energy) whenever one high-grade form of energy is transformed to another. Energy transformations are always inefficient
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Fundamentals of Animal Energetics Animals take in chemical-bond energy and put out heat, chemical- bond energy, and external work.
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Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement An animal’s metabolic rate is the rate at which it converts chemical energy into heat and external work
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Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement Metabolic rate is important because it helps determine the amount of food an animal needs, and therefore the food energy that the animal removes from its ecosystem. A animal’s metabolic rate also provides a quantitative measure of the total activity of all its physiological mechanisms.
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Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement An animal’s rate of Oxygen (O2) consumption is the most common measure of metabolic rate. Metabolic rates can also be measured by direct calorimetry or studies of material balance
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Metabolic Scaling: The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size BMR, SMR, and other measures of resting metabolic rate are allometric functions of body weight within phylogenetically related groups of animals (M= aW b , where b is usually in the vicinity of 0.7). Small bodied species tend to have higher weight-specific metabolic rates than do related large-bodied species, an effect so great that the weight-specific BMR is 20x higher in mice than in elephants
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Metabolic Scaling: The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size Maximal aerobic metabolic rate also tends to be an allometric function of body weight in sets of related species. In many cases studied thus far, the allometric exponent for maximal metabolic rate differs from that for resting metabolic rate.
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Metabolic Scaling: The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size The allometric relation between metabolic rate and weight exerts important effects on the organization and structure of both individual animals and ecosystems.
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  • Spring '08
  • MOSTMAN
  • Energy, metabolic rate

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