Michael_Taiping Views on Westerners

Michael_Taiping Views on Westerners - The t 7 J ‘ TAI P...

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Unformatted text preview: The t 7 J ‘ TAI P TRANSLATIONSBY REBELLI ON Margery Anneberg Harry Lamley Y. S. Chao K. H. La C. L. Chang Albert Mann ' ' ’ Shelley Cheng Frederick Mote ‘ HZSbOTy and D06um€nt5 Boyd Compton William Schultz ‘ Robert Crawford Keaton Shih ~ C. T. Hu Leslie Tsou . Michael Joy Rose Tsou Franz M zc/zagl William Johnson Urban Whitaker " ~ 1. Wu In collaboration with Chung-Ii Chang ‘ I EDITOR: Gladys Greenwood IN THREE VOLUMES Volume II: Documentsand Comments (Parts I to IV) UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PRESS Seattle and London, 1971 Copyright © 1971 by the University of Washington Press I lerary of Congress Catalog Card Number 66-13538 . Printed in Japan by General Printing Co., Ltd., Yokohama 4 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduc or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including ph cording, or. by any information storage and retrieval 5 perrmssmnm writing from the publisher. ed in any form otocopying, re- ystem, without Preface THESE volumes contain the legacy of the Taipings, the basic source material for the study of the Taiping Rebellion. A histor and analysis of the rebellion have been given in Volume I, where we have referred to ‘WWWWd in this second and third volume of our study; The documents published here are the Taipings’ own history. These are the official and unofficial writings of the Taipings, which, better than any outsider’s observations, characterize the rebellion, its pur— poses, and its development. Here are the Taiping laws, rules, and regu- lations describing the system they attempted to establish; the prayers, sermons, and religious proclamations; the many poems and odes; the letters and accounts of Taiping accomplishments; the specific, detailed local regulations issued to the population, and most of all, the so-called confessions written by captured Taiping leaders before they faced ex- ecution. In all these documents we find the extraordinary narrative of the system and its history and an insight into the character of the leaders and the participants in the movement. What we have endeavored to do has been to provide as complete a collection of the Taipings’ own docu- ments as can be obtained today. The total number of documents given in this collection is 391, to which has been added later a supplement of fourteen documentsflisted alphabetically as “A” to “N.” The numbering and lettering is ours and is meant to provide an easy reference tothe documents in the Col- vii 714 The Taiping Rebellion 193. A LETTER BY HOU YU—T’IEN INQUIRING ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE BRITISH TRIP UP THE YANGTZE r This letter was written on November 23, 1858, by the Hsiang-t’ien—yan, Hou Yu—t’ien, the Taiping commander at Wuhu. Lord Elgin was jour- neying up the Yangtze River (see comment on document 192 for de- tails), and the ships in his convoy had anchored at VVuhu to obtain supplies. A Hupeh man, who described himself as a Taiping officer of the garrison, delivered Hou’s letter, in which the British were requested to communicate with Hou by letter concerning their business. Oliphant, Wade, and others went ashore to Hou’s yamen to converse with him. As Oliphant reported the conversation, Hou told them that he was not only commandant and judge but also a high priest, and that he had formerly been a small merchant in Canton. Lord Elgin’s party sailed upstream the next day, but Captain Barker remained behind with his ship, the Retribution. Hou Yu—t’ien came into contact with the British again later (see documents 198 and 199). The Chinese original of this letter is not available; the following translation is taken from Laurence Oliphant’s diary, II, 326—37. ' How [Hou], a Tsiang-tien—yen [Hsiang—t’iezzyen], the truly loyal and patriotic, by the heavenly command of the heavenly kingdom of Tai- ping, to the younger brethren of Jesus. Whereas, owing to the heavenly , bounty of the Heavenly Father, and the heavenly elder brother jesus, the heavenly dynasty has been recently founded, and our truly Holy Master, the Heavenly King, has been desired to descend on earth, and govern the empire (or the world), he has established his throne in the heavenly capital, and for several years (the people of) the four seas have I turned their hearts to him, and the myriad places have felt his civilising influence. Five foreign ships belonging to you, the brethren of jesus, have now come to the central kingdom of the heavenly dynasty, and I have arrived in the department of Ning (Kiang-ning, or Nankin). Being ' in ignorance what propositions you have to make, I have sent a special messenger, Yu—hing-lung, to visit your ships and inquire. If you have anything to settle, please inform me by letter. ’ The fifteenth of the tenth Moon of the Wu—Wu, or eighth year of the heavenly kingdom of Tai~ping [November 23, 1858]. Period of Military Campaigns 715 194. THE T’IEN WANG’S MANIFESTO TO THE FOREIGN BROTHERS This manifesto was issued by Hung Hsiu—ch’t‘ian after Lord Elgin and his party passed by Nanking on November 20, 1858 (see document 192 for details). Since Elgin had gone on up the Yangtze, Lin (apparently Lin Shao—chang; see Kuo, Jih-c/zi/z, I, 597) sent this manifesto from Nanking to Wuhu. The manifesto was actually delivered on December 25 to H.M.S. Retribution by Chu Hsiung—pang, a Taiping official (docu- ment 195). Hung welcomes the “foreign younger brothers of the western ocean” as fellow worshippers of the same God and attempts to convince them of the divine mission of the Taiping leaders in order to gain their support in his war against the Manchus. A number of poems from “The Book of Heavenly Decrees and Proclamations” (document 23) are included in the manifesto to support Hung’s claim to divine power. One interesting point in the manifesto is the statement on the place of the Tung Wang, Yang Hsiu-ch’ing, in the religious hierarchy. The Tung Wang had earlier established himself as the “Redeemer of the Sick” (see document 50), but in this manifesto issued after his assassination his suffering and death are directly compared to the crucifixion of Jesus. Hung also states that the Tung Wang is his “uterine younger brother” and the third son of God. This manifesto was Hung Hsiu—ch’uan’s first direct communication with the foreigners since 1853, when he wrote to the Reverend Issachar Roberts (see document 110). Before Yang Hsiu-ch’ing was assassinated, it was Yang, rather than Hung, who handled relations with foreigners, as in the case of the British plenipotentiary Sir George Bonham’s visit to Nanking (document 113). The manifesto was written on yellow silk with vermilion ink, and was composed largely in verses of seven—word lines. The original manifesto is in the Cambridge University Library. It is included in I—ching, No. 23, February 5, 1937, pp. 8—10; and Chin, Shift-liar), pp. 93*99. It was trans— lated by Thomas Wade, who accompanied Lord Elgin on this Yangtze trip. The translation first appeared in NCH, No. 433,]anuary 22, 1859, p. 99, and was used in Parliamentary Papers, 1858—59; Brine, pp. 229—36; and Oliphant, I, 334411. The following translation is a revised version of the Wade translation. I proclaim for the information of the foreign younger brothers of the western ocean: The Heavenly nature differs extremely from the worldly nature. The 716 The Taiping Rebellion Heavenly Father, the Supreme Lord and Great God, is the Sacred Father of one and all under heaven. My uterine elder brother is Jesus. My uterine younger brother is [Yang] Hsiu—ch’ing. In the third month of the year wu-s/zen [April, 1848] God descended and commissioned the Tung Wang [Yang Hsiu—ch’ing] to save mankind. In the ninth month of that year the Redeemer descended and commissioned the Hsi Wang [Hsiao Ch’ao—kuei] to manifest divine powers. The Father and the Elder Brother led me to sit on [the throne of] the Heavenly Kingdom; with great display of authority and might to sit in the hall of heaven, and to make T’ien—ching [Nanking] our capital, founding the Heavenly * Kingdom, that the ministers and people often thousand nations might do homage to the August Father. The hall of the true Deity is within the Heavenly Court. The hall of Christ is likewise glorious forever. In the year ting-ya [1837], I ascended to heaven. The Father, with words of truth, bestowed on me a volume of poems, enjoining meto read it well and to regard it as proof, and by its verses to know the Father, and to remain steadfast. The Father, moreover, commanded the Elder Brother to teach me how to read it. The Father and the Elder Brother personally instructed me and laid their injunctions upon me again and again. The Heavenly Father, God, is in the measure of his capacity as the depth of the sea. Up to the thirty-third layer of heaven, the demons burst their way. The Father and Elder Brother, taking me with them, drove them away, layer after layer. Supported by the heav- enly generals and heavenly soldiers on either side of us, we smote on this occasion two—thirds of them. At one gate of heaven after another all were on guard, and the devilish demons were all driven down to earth. Only a few of them were left, so as to make manifest the August Father. The Father subsequently bade me to return to the world, [prom- ising that] in all things the Father would shoulder responsibility. He enjoined me to set my heart at rest and not to be alarmed, that'he, the Father, would come forward, and on this his injunctions were repeated twice and again. In the year want/zen [1848], when the Nan Wang [Feng Yfin-shan] was suifering in Kuei—p’ing [Kwangsi], I besought the Father to come down to the world and manifest his majesty. I had just returned fron" Kwangsi to Kwangtung at that time, and the Heavenly Father did come down to the world, and rescued the Nan Wang. The Tung Wang redeems sickness; he is a holy spirit.1 The Father sent him down with a 1 See especially Hung Hsiu-ch’t’lan’s comment on the Taiping New Testament (document 41), “The Gospel According to St. l\/Iark,” chapter one. Period of Military Campaign: 717 commission to exterminate the demons. He destroyed devilish demons without number, and so we were enabled to arrive without delay at the capital [N anking]. When the Father descended to the world he made known his sacred edicts. All these I have read and committed well to memory. Thus I know the Father and can be without error. The Father and the Elder Brother led me to rule the Taiping [dynasty]. The Father has deputed the Tung Wang to redeem sickness. Thus he was blind, deaf, and dumb, and suffered infinite misery, and while fighting the demons, he was wounded in the neck and fell. The Father had declared beforehand in his sacred decree that when our warriors went forth, [Yang Hsiu-] ch’ing would be afflicted, and that when they arrived at the court [Nanking], he would be assassinated. [The words] of the Father’s sacred decree were all accomplished. The Elder Brother gave his life to ransom sinners, so that he became a substitute for myriads and myriads of people of the world. The Tung Wang, in ransoming the sick, suffered equally with the Elder Brother, and when he fell with the pestilence he returned to his spirit—nature to thank the Father for his goodness. What is within the hearts2 of the Father and the Elder Brother it is impossible to know. He who would choose the true heart shall as— cend to high heaven. The sacred decrees of the Father are numberless. I select one or two of them for declaration: I, the Heavenly Father, descended to the world some years ago, Escorted earthward by the Heavenly Elder Brother, where we together led the bitter way. Jesus is your Saviour, And devotes himself to instructing and guiding you as before. I, the Heavenly Father, gave life to Ch’iian3 to be your sovereign. Why not be faithful, rather than emptily cultivating the past. Many of you have repeatedly disobeyed orders, And because I have not pointed you out, your boldness has risen up to heaven.4 On whose account has your Heavenly Father come down into the world ? For what reason has Jesus laid down his life? Heaven has sent down your king to be the true Sovereign. 2 For the use of the Taiping expression ts’ao (literally, “grass”) to mean “hearts,” see Lo, “Ching—chi-k’ao,” p. 28. a Hung Hsiu-ch’uan. “ This poem is a reproduction of one in “The Book of Heavenly Decrees and Proclama- tions” (document 23). The poem was first proclaimed on August 9, 1851, at Tzu—ching—shan, Kwangsie 718 The Taiping Rebellion Why must you be troubled and let your courage fly 2’5 You little ones from every direction who have left your homes, Left your native villages, determined to become loyal servants; You have come forward to aid your king as tigers and leopards,6 Knowing that, now you have a sovereign, you may achieve humanity. If you do not believe that in the hills7 the pure8 and noble9 have appeared among us,10 just remember that your Spiritual Father has established your true Sovereign. Clear evidences of power and ability show Heaven to be master; Though a thousand surround us with valor and daring, they shall be broken as dust.11 From ten thousand regions, the ten thousand states have all come to pay court ten thousand times, Along the ten thousand hills and ten thousand rivers, the ten thousand things are at peace. Over ten thousand 1i ten thousand eyes penetrate ten thousand times; To ten thousand minds, ten thousand blessings and ten thousand merits befall.12 If you deceive Heaven, do not think that Heaven does not know; Heaven’s liberality is as vast as the sea, and is yet not hesitant to act. Let me observe whether you are courageous or not; If you are not now faithful ministers, when will you be? You intended at the third watch to flee down the dark road, Yet before the light of day you complained of devilish delusions. Each of you, for your king, must carry out the true Way, Believe and trust in your Heavenly Father, and do not harbor suspicions.13 Heaven produced the true Sovereign to govern the hills and rivers. 5 This poem is also in document 23. It was first proclaimed on August 10, 185 l, in Kwangsi. ‘3 As assistants. In document 23, this sentence reads, “Formerly you did not serve your king as tigers and leopards.” 7 The word shall means “hills”; it also alludes to Feng Yi‘m-shan, the Nan Wang. 3 The word ch’ing means “pure”; it also alludes to Yang Hsiu-ch’ing, the Tung Wang. _ ” The word kuei means “noble”; it also alludes to Hsiao Ch’ao-kuei, the Hsi Wang. 1° In document 23, this line ends with “the pure and noble dwell.” 11 This poem with a few differences is also in document 23. It was first proclaimed on january 23, 1852, at Yung~an, Kwangsi. In document 23, the last line reads, “Before they assemble I can break the demons as dust.’f 12 This poem is also in document 23, proclaimed on the same day and at the same place as the poem above. 13 Also in document 23, proclaimed on August 9, 185], at Tzu—ching—shan, Kwangsi. Period of Military Campaigns 719 When God sent down this single sentence of sacred decree, he com— manded me to add three sentences. I added these: The Heavenly Father and the Heavenly Elder Brother have greatly troubled their minds. All authority and power reverts to the Supreme Lord. How happy it is, to be under the unification of the Taiping! God again sent down a sacred decree, saying: In the ninefold heaven let there be one Tung Wang, To aid and support the empire and long to endure. When God declared these two lines in his sacred decree, he again desired me to add two lines. In accordance with the sacred command of the Father I added these two: The Ho-nai Teacher, who is at the same time the Redeemer from Sickness,14 ' Saves the people of the world and shoulders great responsibilities. At a later period God made a change, saying: The Lord appointed a pair of phoenixes, one to the east and the other to the west. Let the east, west, south, and north do homage to the sun. God made another change, saying: The Lord appointed a pair of phoenixes, one to the east and the other to the west. Let them, in gratitude for the bounty of Heaven that has descended on them, do homage to the sun together. The above are a few illustrations of the F ather’s sacred decrees. I truthfully declare for the information of you, the foreign younger brothers, that the fact of the descent to earth of the Heavenly Father and the Heavenly Elder Brother is proved by the true evidences in the verses of the Father. His divine miracles and words of authority are too many to relate. Come soon to heaven and you will be aware of it. The First Elder Brother, Jesus, is the same as the Father. Not a sentence of his sacred decrees shall be changed. The Heavenly Father, God, is the 1" Both Ho-nai Teacher and Redeemer from Sickness were official titles of the Tung Wang. 720 The Taiping Rebellion true God. The Heavenly Elder Brother, jesus, is the true Heavenly Elder Brother. The Father and the Elder Brother led me to rule the Heavenly Kingdom, to sweep away and exterminate the devilish spirits, bestowing on me great honor. Foreign younger brothers of the western ocean, listen to my words. Join us in doing service to the Father and Elder Brother and extinguishing the stinking reptiles. In all things the Father, the Elder Brother, and I shall assume responsibilities. Come, brethren, enthusiastically, and establish ten thousand merits. When I was traveling in Kwangtung province some time ago, I ad— dressed Roberts in the hall of worship. I then told him that I had been up to heaven, and that the Heavenly Father and the Heavenly Elder Brother had committed to me great authority. Has Roberts now come here? If he has, let him come to the court and speak with me. I am the second son of God. The Elder Brother and the Tung Wang are my uterine brothers. All as one family together adoring the Heav- enly Father, there shall be universal peace [t’ai-p’ing] on earth, which was said long ago. [It was also said] “The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand”; now it has come. Foreign younger brothers of the western ocean, be of good cheer. In former days when I ascended to heaven, I saw what was destined by the Father, that the ten thousand nations shall aid me to mount the heavenly altar. What the Father destined has now come to pass. Put forth your strength for Heaven; it is a duty; yes, it is a duty. For the Father, and for the Elder Brother, slay the devilish demons. Out of gratitude to the Father for your birth and nourishment, you will re- turn Victorious in battle. I have given the Young Monarch to be adopted by Jesus. The adopted son of the Elder Brother and myself, sitting in the Heavenly Capital, the Young Monarch, as half the son of Jesus and half my son, is the recipient of the protection of Heaven.) Thus for generations the young sovereigns, as the sons of God, shall inherit from the Elder Brother and myself the whole empire. Foreign younger brothers of the western ocean, adore the Supreme Lord. It is my wish that the Father and the Elder Brother should cause, it to be so. The First Elder Brother being in time past nailed on a cross, left it as his sign and in this there is no mistake. The tenfold-perfect and auspicious is myself.15 In all ways is that destined by the Father. Thus that the First Elder Brother came to life again in three days, and in three 15 The character for “perfect” is ch’iian, part of Hung Hsiu-ch’ilan’s name. There were ten Taiping poems published together under the title “Tenfold—Perfect Auspicious Poems” (document 21). Period qf Military Campaigns 721 days built the temple, is not a vain boast. I was produced by the Father in three days. I built the temple of . the Father and the Elder Brother and destroyed the devilish serpents. In the third year, kuei-lzao [1853], I beheaded the devilish serpents. In the year 2'9)qu [1855], I exterminated the brutes, by the aid of the Father and the Elder Brother. The serpents and brutes humbled and exterminated, the empire is unified forever. The whole world tog...
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