Bio exam 2 - Exam 2 KNOW life cycle of plasmodium moss...

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Exam 2 KNOW: life cycle of plasmodium, moss, mushroom, angiosperm; 4 major groups of fungi and characteristics; 4 major groups of plants and examples Chapter 28 Protists Part 2 -Often times, similarly grouped organisms are from different clades. -Primary/serial endosymbiosis—a cell with mitochondria took a plastid via endosymbiosis. It diverged to red and green algae. Then secondary endosymbiosis occurred, where another eukaryote picks up red or green algae. Supergroup 1 Excavata -Excavata are classified together because they have a groove on one side. Excavates include protists with modified mitochondria and protists with unique flagella Diplomonads and Parabasalids - Prostists in both of these two groups lack plastids and have modified mitochondria. Most are found in anaerobic environments. -Diplomonads (2 nuclei) They have modified mitochondria called mitosomes. Mitosomes lack the electron transport chain and as a result cannot use oxygen to transfer energy so they rely on anaerobic pathways. They derive energy from anaerobic biochemical pathways. They have multiple flagella and two equal sized nuclei. Eukaryotic flagella are extensions of the cytoplasm containing bundles of microtubules covered by the cell’s plasma membrane. They can form cysts. o Cysts can survive in an aerobic environment, like water. o Giardiasis (beaver fever) It is common in seemingly pristine streams. Causes severe diarrhea and intestinal cramps when it attaches to the intestinal epithelium. Human and animal feces spread it. People living around it build up immunity to it quickly, because chances are they will get it when they are very young. Boiling water kills it but filtration is the only way to pull out the cysts, so filtration is always best. -Parabasalids Parabasalids have modified mitochondria called hydrogenosomes. They are anaerobic. No cyst, so can’t survive in aerobic environments.
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Trichomonas vaginalis o It is a pathogen that carries vaginal infections in females. Reproductive system is anaerobic. o Males will be carriers but never show symptoms. o The organism can swim through the viscous fluid of the vagina because of its flagella. o There are five million cases annually. o It can lead to anatomical damage, pain, and sterility. -Symbiosis Trichonympha (parabasalid) and termites o Termites eat wood in the house. Hypermastigotes (trichonympha) help digest cellulose in the gut of termites. They are also helped by bacteria o The termite breaks up the wood. Triconympha digests it in the termite’s gut. o Trichonympha have bacteria to help them digest as well. -Eugelozoans They are heterotrophic and phototrophic, making them mixotrophs. They are often parasites. The main uniting structure is the presence of either a rod or spiral shaped structure in their flagella.
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