Primary and Secondary Metabolism

Primary and Secondary Metabolism - Primary and Secondary...

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Primary and Secondary Metabolism Sugar utilization Sugar/carbon is utilized in two ways o Catabolism (breakdown) of sugar to make energy o Anabolism (build-up) of primary and secondary metabolites Primary metabolites: DNA, amino acids, hormones, lipids, cellulose, and chlorophyll… [Necessary for life] Secondary metabolites: some pigments, fragrance, defense compounds (nicotine, opium, caffeine), … Secondary metabolites are often species-specific Nitrogen absorption Plants use 1 nitrogen for every 30 oxygen’s, 40 carbons, and 60 hydrogens Nitrogen is the most common limiting nutrient for plants Atmospheric (N2) is not available for absorption and must be fixed into NO3- (nitrate) or NH3 (ammonia) by industrial or biological processes Industrial nitrogen fixation is a primary energy input for agriculture Sources of biologically fixed nitrogen = decaying plant matter (compost), animal waste products (manure), and soil bacteria/symbionts Biological nitrogen fixation Soil bacteria fix nitrogen and can release it into the rhizosphere Some soil bacteria from facultative symbioses with plants o Most common = rhizobia and legumes o Bacteria grow in nodules on plant roots o Plants provides housing and food; bacteria provide fixed nitrogen Nodule development Figure 12.12 and 12.9 Mycorrhiza vs. rhizobia Mycorrhiza Rhizobia Fungi Bacterial Common/associated with many plants Rare/specific to legumes Provide water and nutrients Provide fixed nitrogen
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