chapter 10 - Anita Badro Chapter 10 Nervous System I Basic...

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Anita Badro 2-21-16 Chapter 10 Nervous System I: Basic Structure and Function 10.1 overview on the nervous system 1. Describe how the nervous system detects change associated with the body and reacts to that change to maintain homeostasis. Through a vast communicating network of cells and the biochemicals that they send and receive, the nervous system can detect changes in the body, make decisions based on the basis of the information received, and stimulate muscles or glands to respond. These responses counteract the effects of the changes, thus helping to maintain homeostasis. 2. Distinguish between neurons and neuroglia. Neurons are the structural and functional cells reacting to the physical and chemical changes in their environment. Neuroglia is the supporting cells necessary for nourishing and maintaining the neurons, among other functions. 3. Which of the following descriptions is accurate? b. A neuron has a single axon, which sends information. 4. Explain the difference between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system PNS. The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of all of the peripheral nerves that connect all of the parts of the body with the CNS. 10.2 General Functions of the Nervous System 5. List three general functions of the nervous system. The nervous system functions in three ways: Sensory—the sensory function is accomplished by means of sensory receptors that note changes in their environment. Integrative—the CNS can take the impulses from all of the sensory receptors and combine them to make perceptions and sensations about the environment. Motor—the CNS can send impulses along some peripheral nerves to effectors in the muscles and glands in response to changes in the internal and external environment. 6. Distinguish a sensory receptor from an effector.
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Sensory neurons carry nerve impulses from peripheral body parts into the brain or spinal cord. Interneurons lie entirely within the brain or spinal cord. Motor neurons carry nerve impulses out of the brain or spinal cord to effectors outside the nervous system. 7. Distinguish between the types of activities that the somatic and autonomic nervous systems control. The somatic nervous system oversees conscious (voluntary) activities. The autonomic nervous system controls viscera and the subconscious (involuntary) actions. 10.3 Description of Cells of the Nervous System 8. Match the part of a neuron on the left with the description on the right. 1. Dendrite—C 2.Chromatophilic substance—E 3. Axon—D 4. Cell body—B 5. Neurofibrils—A 9. Explain how Schwann cells encase large axons including the formation of myelin, the neurilemma, and the nodes of Ranvier.
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