chapter 6 copy - Anita Badro SCI101 Chapter 6 Integumentary...

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Anita Badro 1-31-16 SCI101 Chapter 6 Integumentary System 6.1 skin and its tissue 1. The epidermis is composed of layers of _____________ tissue. keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 2. Distinguish between the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The dermis is the inner, thicker layer, and includes various tissues, such as connective tissue, epithelial tissue, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood. The epidermis and dermis are separated by a basement membrane that is anchored to the dermis by short fibrils 3. Explain the functions of the subcutaneous layer. The subcutaneous layer contains adipose tissue that acts as an insulator, conserving internal body heat and preventing the entrance of heat from the outside. This layer also contains the major blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the skin. 4.Explain what happens to epidermal cells as they undergo keratinization. As new cells in the epidermis are produced, they are pushed upwards from the basement membrane towards the outside of the skin. As they get further from their nutrient source they die. As the process occurs, the maturing cells undergo a hardening process (keratinization) during which the cytoplasm develops strands of tough, fibrous, waterproof proteins called keratin. These dead cells form many tough, waterproof layers. These dead cells are rubbed away as newer cells replace them. 5.Place the layers of the epidermis in order (1-5) from the outermost layer to the layer attached to the dermis by the basement membrane. Stratum basale—5 Stratum spinosum—4 Stratum granulosum—3 Stratum lucidum—2 Stratum corneum—1 6. Describe the function of melanocytes. An important function of the skin is to protect the deeper tissues from the harmful effects of sunlight. One method of accomplishing this is the production of melanin, the dark pigment produced by melanocytes in the deeper layers of the epidermis and in the upper layers of the dermis. Melanin absorbs light energy and protects deeper tissues. Although melanocytes are found deep in the epidermis, the pigment can be found in any of the nearby cells due to the melanocytes’ long, pigment-containing extensions that pass upward between neighboring epidermal cells. These extensions can then transfer the granular melanin to these other cells by
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a process called cytocrine secretion. As a result, the neighboring cells often contain more melanin than the melanocytes themselves.
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