chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Skeletal System 7.1 bone shape and...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

Chapter 7 Skeletal System 7.1 bone shape and structure 1. List four groups of bones based upon their shapes, and name an example from each group. a. Long bones—femur and humerus b. Short bones—tarsals and carpals c. Flat bones—ribs, scapulae, and bones of the skull d. Irregular bones—vertebrae and many facial bones 2. Sketch a typical long bone, and label its epiphyses, diaphysis, medullary cavity, periosteum, and articular cartilages. 3.disscuss the functions of the parts labled. 4. Distinguish between spongy and compact bone. Compact bone is comprised of tightly packed tissue that is strong, solid, and resistant to bending. Spongy bone consists of numerous branching bony plates. Irregular interconnected spaces occur between these plates, thus reducing the weight of the bone. 5. Explain how central canals and perforating canals are related. Central canals (Haversian canals) contain one or two small blood vessels and a nerve, surrounded by loose connective tissue. These vessels provide nourishment for the bone cells associated with the osteonic canals. The osteonic canals run longitudinally. Perforating canals (Volkmann’s canals) run transversely and contain larger blood vessels and nerves by which the vessels and nerves in osteonic canals communicate with the surface of the bone and the medullary cavity. 7.2. Bone development and growth 6. Explain how the development of intramembranous bone differs from that of endochondral bone. Intramembranous bones develop from sheetlike masses of connective tissue. Some of the primitive connective tissue cells enlarge and differentiate into osteoblasts. Spongy bone tissue is produced in all directions by these osteoblasts in the membrane. Eventually, the periosteum is developed by outside cells of the membrane of the developing bone. Endochondral bones develop of masses of hyaline cartilage with shapes similar to the future bone structures. These models grow rapidly for a while, and then begin to undergo extensive changes. The center of the diaphysis in long bones breaks down and disappears. At the same time, a periosteum forms from connective tissues that encircle the developing diaphysis. The primary ossification center is formed. Later on, the secondary ossification centers form and spongy bone forms from this 7. Distinguish between osteoblasts and osteocytes. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells. Osteocytes are mature bone cells surrounded by matrix. 8. Explain the function of an epiphyseal plate. The epiphyseal plate is a band of cartilage that is left between the primary and secondary ossification centers. This plate includes rows of young cells that are undergoing mitosis and producing new cells. As the epiphyseal plate thickens due to the new cells, bone length is increased.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '13
  • Bone marrow, Occipital bone, sphenoid bone, frontal bone, Bone loss

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern