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Poli 4020 Chapter 7

Poli 4020 Chapter 7 - Poli 4020 Chapter 7 The Commerce...

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Poli 4020 Chapter 7: The Commerce Power Constitutional Foundations of the Commerce Power The most controversial power given to Congress Commerce and the Constitutional Convention o Prior to the new constitution  the states were almost exclusively in charge of economic  regulation  caused the nations to slide into stagnation and was  powerless to do anything delegates knew that the power to regulate commerce  needed to be centralized o Article I removed the power from the states and gave it to Congress This power included regulating commerce with other nations  and this has had little opposition from the states The power to regulate interstate commerce has not been  clearly defined and Congress did not use this law quickly Marshall Defines Commerce o There were many problems with the distinction between interstate  and intrastate; commercial and noncommercial o The earliest case and most important was Gibbons v. Ogden Gibbons v. Ogden Triggered Dispute:  Ogden and Gibbons were partners in the steamboat  business carrying passengers from New York to New Jersey (Ogden having the  rights in New York waters from the Fulton monopoly and Gibbons having the  right to coastal waters from the national government).  The partnership ended  with Ogden was ordered by the monopoly to leave Gibbons.   Gibbons continued  to enter New York water, so Ogden took him to court. Gibbons’s lawyers claimed  that the federal permission went over the New York issued permission. Ogden  said the commerce clause pertains to commerce not navigation. Legal Question:  Does the state have the right to regulate the navigation or is  this under Congress’s power to regulate commerce? Provision of Constitution:  Article I Sec. 8 Commerce Clause  Holding/ Majority Opinion:  (Chief Justice Marshall) 1
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a. If Congress does not include navigation then the government can  make law over it. Commerce must include navigation because that is  what the delegates and most people comprehend it to be. Commerce  among the states must include inside the state, not just stopping at the  boundary line.  b. The New York act giving power of the navigation to the monopoly is  inconsistent with Congressional Acts to regulate navigation. Marshall  defined the meaning of the phrase “among the states”.  Marshall also  stated that the commerce clause does have power to regulate  navigation.  Outcome:  6-0 Commerce involves more than just buying and selling, but  includes interstate commerce between states. States control commerce that  stays in their state and does not pass borders. Congress can regulate interstate 
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