Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 The Diversity of American Colonial...

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Chapter 17The Diversity of American Colonial Societies,1530 - 1770AP World History
I. The Columbian ExchangeA. Demographic ChangesPeoples of New World lacked immunity to diseases from the Old World.Smallpox, diphtheria, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever.Disease undermined the ability of native peoples to resist settlement and accelerated cultural change.Syphilis was only disease thought to have transferred from the Americas to Europe.
People of the New World lacked immunities to smallpox, diphtheria, typhus, influenza, malaria, and yellow fever.
Syphilis is the only disease thought to have traveled from the Americas to Europe. It is typically acquired via direct sexual contact with the infectious lesions of a person with syphilis. Syphilis infections are not limited to the genitals and can be transmitted through non-sexual contact.
B. Transfer of Plants and AnimalsAmerican crops of maize, beans, potatoes, manioc, and tobacco were brought to Europe.Old World livestock such as pigs, cattle, horses, and sheep destroyed crops of some Amerindian farmers.Had a dramatic influence on environment and on cultures of the Amerindian people.The introduction of New World crops is thought to be one factor contributing to the rapid growth in world population after 1700.– Maize, potatoes, and manioc
The Columbian Exchange refers to the transfer of peoples, animals, plants, and diseases between the New and Old Worlds. One can argue that this exchange did more harm than good. It may have led to genocide, racism, and imperialism.
Sugar plantations of colonial Brazil always depended on slave labor. Amerindians were used first, but Africans were found to be more productive and more resistant to disease.
Tobacco is demanding crop that depletes soil nutrients fast. When tobacco is cultivated on the same land repeatedly with minimal rotation with other crops, there is a tendency for the soil to become exhausted and for crop pests to become endemic.
No animal had a more striking effect on the cultures of native peoples than the horse, which increased the efficiency of hunters and the military capacity of warriors on the plains.
II. Spanish America and BrazilA. State and ChurchSpanish exerted control through the supervisory office called the Council of the Indies.In 1720 Portugal appointed a viceroy to administer Brazil.These high developed, costly bureaucracies thwarted local economic imitative and political experimentation.Catholic clergy also acted to protect Amerindians from the exploitation and abuse of Spanish settlers. Catholic missionaries were frustrated as Amerindian converts blended Christian beliefs with elements of their own cosmology and ritual.In response to this the Church redirected its energies toward the colonial cities and towns where the Church founded universities and secondary schools.
Portugal controlled Brazil and Spain controlled central and western south America as a result of the Treaty of Tordesillas.

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