Ch.17.TheWest - Chapter 17 Contesting the West 1865-1900 Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny John Gast(1872 Native Americans Removal Reservations 5

Ch.17.TheWest - Chapter 17 Contesting the West 1865-1900...

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Chapter 17 Contesting the West 1865-1900
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John Gast (1872) Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny
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Native Americans Removal & Reservations 5 Civilized Tribes – Oklahoma – 1830s Treaty of Fort Laramie -1851 Sand Creek Massacre – 1864 Treaty of Medicine Lodge - 1867 Sand Creek Massacre By Howling Wolf, a witness
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Native Americans Before European Arrival
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Native Americans After European Arrival Note: Location of tribes before reservations
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Native Americans 5 Civilized Tribes Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole Eastern half of Oklahoma by 1889
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Native Americans First Treaty of Fort Laramie – 1851 US Government + Northern Plains Tribes Create peace between tribes Define Territory Recognize US right of way to make roads Force restitution for wrongs against US citizens Annuities withheld for any violations Fort Laramie
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Native Americans Annihilation of a way of life Government ordered military to shoot the bison, which would destroy the Indian’s wandering way of life – 65 million animals – couple of decades
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Native Americans Sioux Uprising/Dakota War of 1862 Chief Little Crow pursued policy of accommodation at first: Great disagreements between the tribes on acculturation (change of culture) US Government late on payments – Indian agent told chief to go and eat grass 17 Aug 1862 – 4 Dakota men killed 5 Americans living on a farm Chief Little Crow led uprising, which fractured the Dakota tribes Lasted six weeks with more than 600 civilians and soldiers killed 400 Native Americans tried – 38 put to death Chief Little Crow
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Native Americans Sand Creek Massacre 800 Cheyenne & Arapaho seeking protection as promised in the 1851 Chiefs Black Kettle, White Antelope, & Left Hand led their people to Colorado for a peace negotiation Awaiting a peace team and flying a white flag as instructed by the Ft. Lyon commander Surrounded by Colorado Volunteers led by Col. John Chivington 29 November 1864 Painting of the attack on Sand Creek, by Robert Lindneaux, 1936
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Native Americans Sand Creek Massacre cont’d Chivington and his men killed 400 mostly women and children They paraded body parts throughout Denver afterwards Chivington never admitted to or expressed sorry for what he had done Black Kettle survived this attack but died later at the Battle of Washita in Oklahoma led by Custer Chief Black Kettle Col. Chivington
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American Voices “The more Indians we can kill this year, the less will have to be killed the next war, for the more I see of these Indians, the more convinced I am that they all have to be killed or be maintained as a species of paupers.” General William Tecumseh Sherman 1867
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Native Americans Political quarrels, failure to uphold promises brought an end to all treaties Treaty at Medicine Lodge October 1867 Plains Indians – 2 Treaties Kiowa, Comanche & Apache + Cheyenne/Arapaho Defined reservation boundaries No off reservation bison hunting Indian agent’s role Bldg. construction, schools, employee residences Medicine Lodge, Kansas
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