Page3Bio 162 Human Anatomy & Physiology I LaboratoryLab 5b Muscular System II-Muscles & Joints: Torso & Lower ExtremityObjectivesStudy slides of the three types of muscle tissueIdentify and learn a list of human muscles using a virtual human dissectionPerform a hands-on study of relationships between human muscles using human anatomicalmodelsIdentify and learn the anatomical names of selected human synovial joints of the lower extremityIdentify the bones, muscles, and movements associated with selected human synovial joints ofthe lower extremityConduct an experiment to understand how electromyography (EMG) can be used to studyneuromuscular functionI. Introduction to Muscle TissuesThere are three types of muscle tissues: skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle (Figure 1 below). Each hasin common: force production, elasticity, and extensibility.Cardiac muscleis specific to the heart forpumping the blood.Smooth muscleis present in most organs, in the walls of blood vessels, and morespecifically in the walls of the airways and digestive system.Skeletal muscleprovides for movement ofbody parts through their attachment to bones. A summary of the characteristics of the three types ofmuscle tissue is shown in Table 1 below.A. Skeletal muscleB. Smooth muscleC. Cardiac muscleTable 1.Muscle tissue characteristics.CharacteristicSkeletal MuscleCardiac MuscleSmooth MuscleAppearance of cellsUnbranched and parallelBranched andinterconnectedSpindle-shapedStriationsPresent and obviousPresent but faintAbsentNucleusMultiple nucleiSingle nucleusSingle nucleusIntercalated discsAbsentPresentAbsentControlVoluntaryInvoluntaryInvoluntary
Page3Bio 162 Human Anatomy & Physiology I LaboratoryII. Muscle Tissue SlidesObtain slides of all three muscle tissues (skeletal, cardiac, smooth). Observe and draw each type ofmuscle tissue onhigh power (40x)noting the characteristic features.Refer to your photographic atlasand instructor for help identifying structures.•skeletal muscle– striations (sarcomeres), peripheral nuclei, sarcoplasm (cytoplasm of musclecell)•cardiac muscle– striations (sarcomeres), intercalated discs, nucleus, sarcoplasm•smooth muscle– nucleus, cell membrane, sarcoplasmIII. Virtual and Model Human Muscle Identification – Torso and LowerExtremityAccess Anatomy and Physiology Revealed (APR) on the lab computers by double-clicking on thedesktop icon. Begin with the region method: Select6. Muscularin the Module box and then click thedissection tool. From the Topic box, choose the region as listed in each section below. Typically, theanterior view will provide the best visuals. To bring up the pin views, click on the layer tag buttons. Tobring up the name of a structure, hover the cursor over a pin. If you are having difficulty locating aspecific muscle, type the name of the muscle into the search box and choose a view from the list thatresults.