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1 Textile Effluent Treatment – A Solution to the Environmental Pollution Dr. Subrata Das
2 Textile Effluent Treatment – A Solution to the Environmental Pollution Dr. Subrata Das E-mail: [email protected]Our biosphere is under constant threat from continuing environmental pollution. Impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere by anthropogenic activities can not be ignored. Man made activities on water by domestic, industrial, agriculture, shipping, radio-active, aquaculture wastes; on air by industrial pollutants, mobile combustion, burning of fuels, agricultural activities, ionization radiation, cosmic radiation, suspended particulate matter; and on land by domestic wastes, industrial waste, agricultural chemicals and fertilizers, acid rain, animal waste have negative influence over biotic and abiotic components on different natural eco-systems. Some of the recent environmental issues include green house effect, loss in bio-diversity, rising of sea level, abnormal climatic change and ozone layer depletion etc. In recent years, different approaches have been discussed to tackle man made environmental hazards. Clean technology, eco-mark and green chemistry are some of the most highlighted practices in preventing and or reducing the adverse effect on our surroundings. Among many engineering disciplines – Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering etc., Textile Engineering has a direct connection with environmental aspects to be explicitly and abundantly considered. The main reason is that the textile industry plays an important role in the economy of the country like India and it accounts for around one third of total export. Out of various activities in textile industry, chemical processing contributes about 70% of pollution. It is well known that cotton mills consume large volume of water for various processes such as sizing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization, dyeing, printing, finishing and ultimately washing. Due to the nature of various chemical processing of textiles, large volumes of waste water with numerous pollutants are discharged. Since these streams of water affect the aquatic eco-system in number of ways such as depleting the dissolved oxygen content or settlement of suspended substances in anaerobic condition, a special attention needs to be paid. Thus a study on different measures which can be adopted to treat the waste water discharged from textile chemical processing industries to protect and safeguard our surroundings from possible pollution problem has been the focus point of many recent investigations. This communication highlights such studies carried out in the area of textile effluent treatment. Sources and Causes of Generation of Textile Effluent Textile industry involves wide range of raw materials, machineries and processes to engineer the required shape and properties of the final product. Waste stream generated in this industry is essentially based on water-based effluent generated in the various activities of wet processing of textiles. The main cause of