outline exam 1 bio

outline exam 1 bio - LECTURE OUTLINE 1 - INTRODUCTION AND...

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LECTURE OUTLINE 1 - INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF CENTRAL DOGMA I. Handout and Introduction to Course Unifying theme - Genes Unit I: Development and Differentiation genes control development differential gene activity as a major developmental mechanism Unit II: Mendelian Inheritance how genes are inherited differential (but controlled) inheritance of genes to generate diversity in the offspring Unit III: Population Genetics and Evolution microevolution - change in the gene composition of a population over time macroevolution - when genetic differences accumulate to the extent that new species arise Unit IV: Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems ecology - study of how we and other organisms interact with each other and environment these interactions are under genetic control, and ecological interactions affect gene structure of populations and communities II. Review of Gene Structure and Function (Ch. 16, 17) 1. Simple definition of gene: basic unit of heredity located on chromosomes, made of DNA 2. Relationship between genes, DNA, and chromosomes DNA is linear polymer of nucleotide subunits (A, T, G, and C) Usually in the form of a double helix Strands held together by hydrogen bonds between A-T, G-C base pairs Chromosomes: single molecule of DNA wrapped with specific proteins Genes are segments of the DNA that have ability to code for functional product Important structural elements of chromosomes: centromeres, telomeres 3. Understand the flow of genetic information, or the central dogma of genetics III. DNA Stores information in its nucleotide sequence Semiconservative replication entire DNA molecule replicates as a unit Mutations - changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Mutations within gene sequences result slightly different forms of genes called alleles IV. Transcription Information in DNA used to make molecule of RNA The units of transcription are the individual genes Know similarities and differences between DNA and RNA RNA polymerase transcription elements: DNA sequences in and surrounding genes transcription factors: protein factors that recognize and interact with the transcription elements transcription elements + factors determine what, where, when, and how much to transcribe V. RNA mRNA - messenger RNA rRNA - ribosomal RNA
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tRNA - transfer RNA snRNA - small nuclear RNA VI. RNA processing 5' Cap - modified guanosine nucleotide - stability and translation 3' poly A tail - transport out of nucleus and stability Splicing - introns and exons VII. Translation Linear sequence of nucleotides in mRNA codes for linear sequence of amino acids in a protein Ribosomes, tRNA, triplet codons, genetic code VIII. Proteins Linear polymer of amino acid subunits Enzymes, structural elements, hormones, receptors, transporters, transcription factors, etc. IX. Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BSC 2010 taught by Professor Pf during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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outline exam 1 bio - LECTURE OUTLINE 1 - INTRODUCTION AND...

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