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KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTSCHAPTER 15:Reconstruction: From 1865-1877, the rebuilding of a shattered nation. In the years following the Civil War, former slaves and their white allies, North and South, would seek to redefine the meaning and the boundaries of American freedom. Laid the foundation for future struggles to extend freedom to all Americans. Freedmen’s Bureau: Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning. Disfranchisement / Disfranchised: To deprive of the right to vote; in the United States, exclusionary policies were used to deny groups, especially African-Americans and women, their voting rights. Sharecropping: A type of farm tenancy that developed after the Civil War in which landless workers – often former slaves – farmed land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop. Black Codes: Laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves; to nullify the codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment. Civil Rights Act (1866 and 1875): (1866) – Along with the Fourteenth Amendment, guaranteed the rights of citizenship to former slaves. (1875) – Outlawed racial discrimination in places of public accommodation like hotels and theaters. Fourteenth Amendment: In 1868, guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to those of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Fifteenth Amendment: Constitutional Amendment ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from discriminating in voting privileges on the basis of race. Reconstruction Act: In 1867, established temporary military governments in ten Confederate states – except Tennessee – and required that the states ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and permit freedmen tovote. Carpetbaggers: Derisive term for the northern emigrants who participated in the Republican governments of the Reconstruction South. Scalawags: Southern white Republicans – some former Unionists – who supported Reconstruction governments. Redeemers: Conservative white Democrats, many of them planters or businessmen, who reclaimed control of the South following the end of Reconstruction. Compromise of 1877: Deal made by a Republican and Democratic special congressional commission to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876; Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared the winner in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from involvement in politics in the South, marking the end of Reconstruction.MORE TERMS FOR CHAPTER 15:Special Field Order 15: Land set aside by General William T. Sherman that included the Sea Islands and a large area along the South Carolina and Georgia coasts for the settlement of black families of forty-acre plots of land. He also offered them broken-down mules that the army could no longer use. In Sherman’s order lay the origins of the phrase, “forty acres and a mule.”